The needs of the drug companies has taken priority over meeting the needs of patients
” Over the past 35 years, patients have suffered from a largely hidden epidemic of side effects from drugs that usually have few offsetting benefits. The pharmaceutical industry has corrupted the practice of medicine through its influence over what drugs are developed, how they are tested, and how medical knowledge is created. Since 1906, heavy commercial influence has compromised Congressional legislation to protect the public from unsafe drugs… ”
Antiepileptic drugs use during pregnancy may cause congenital malformations
Antiepileptic drugs may cause congenital malformations. Less is known about the effect on development in infancy and childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy has an effect on early child development.
Exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy is associated with adverse development at 18 and 36 months of age, measured as low scores within key developmental domains rated by mothers. Exposures to valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, or multiple antiepileptic drugs were associated with adverse outcome within different developmental domains.
Transgenerational effects of environmental toxins require either a chromosomal or epigenetic alteration in the germ line. Transient exposure of a gestating female rat during the period of gonadal sex determination to the endocrine disruptors vinclozolin (an antiandrogenic compound) or methoxychlor (an estrogenic compound) induced an adult phenotype in the F1 generation of decreased spermatogenic capacity (cell number and viability) and increased incidence of male infertility.
These effects were transferred through the male germ line to nearly all males of all subsequent generations examined (that is, F1 to F4). The effects on reproduction correlate with altered DNA methylation patterns in the germ line. The ability of an environmental factor (for example, endocrine disruptor) to reprogram the germ line and to promote a transgenerational disease state has significant implications for evolutionary biology and disease etiology.
Parental Depression, maternal AntiDepressant use during Pregnancy, and Autism Spectrum Disorders Risk
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over recent years.
Use of antidepressant medications during pregnancy also shows a secular increase in recent decades, prompting concerns that prenatal exposure may contribute to increased risk of ASD.
To systematically evaluate whether prenatal exposure to antidepressant medications is associated with increased risk of ASD.
Population-based case-control study. Medical records were used to ascertain case children and control children and to derive prospectively recorded information on mothers’ use of antidepressant medications, mental health history of mothers, and demographic and medical covariates.
A total of 298 case children with ASD (and their mothers) and 1507 randomly selected control children (and their mothers) drawn from the membership of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in Northern California.
Because both androgens and estrogens have been implicated in penile morphogenesis, we evaluated penile morphology in transgenic mice with known imbalance of androgen and estrogen signaling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, and immunohistochemistry of androgen and estrogen receptors α/β. Penises of adult wild-type, estrogen receptor-α knockout (αERKO), estrogen receptor-β knockout (βERKO), aromatase knockout (Arom-KO), and aromatase overexpression (Arom+) mice were evaluated, as well as adult mice treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) from birth to day 10. Adult penises were examined because the adult pattern is the endpoint of development. The urethral orifice is formed by fusion of the MUMP (male urogenital mating protuberance) with the MUMP ridge, which consists of several processes fused to each other and to the MUMP. Similarly, the internal prepuce is completed ventrally by fusion of a ventral cleft. In adult murine penises the stromal processes that form the MUMP ridge are separated from their neighbors by clefts. αERKO, βERKO, and Arom-KO mice have penises with a MUMP ridge clefting pattern similar to that of wild-type mice. In contrast, Arom+ mice and neonatally DES-treated mice exhibit profound malformations of the MUMP, MUMP ridge clefting pattern, and internal prepuce. Abnormalities observed in Arom+ and neonatally DES-treated mice correlate with the expression of estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) in the affected structures. This study demonstrates that formation of the urethal orifice and internal prepuce is due to fusion of separate epithelial-surfaced mesenchymal elements, a process dependent upon both androgen and estrogen signaling, in which ERβ signaling is strongly implicated.
The five million figure was announced last month at the annual meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (Eshre) taking place in Istanbul, Turkey.
Dr David Adamson, chair of the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART), which made the calculation, said: “Millions of families with children have been created, thereby reducing the burden of infertility. The technology has improved greatly over the years to increase pregnancy rates. The babies are as healthy as those from other infertile patients who conceive spontaneously. The technology is available globally in many different countries. IVF is firmly established now in the mainstream of medicine.”
In this 1980 study, the difference in pregnancy outcomes between the DES daughters and the unexposed is highly significant
Reproductive histories were compared for 226 diethylstilbestrol-exposed daughters and 203 DES-unexposed daughters whose mothers participated in a double-blind evaluation 27 years before. Irregular menstruation was slightly more common among the exposed (10%) than among the unexposed (4%). Nineteen of the exposed and only four of the unexposed had primary infertility. Among those at risk, 86% of the unexposed and 67% of the exposed had become pregnant. The reasons for these differences are not known. Comparison of evaluable first pregnancy outcome revealed full-term live birth to be more common among the unexposed (85%) than the exposed (47%). Premature live birth was experienced by 22% of the exposed but only 7% of the unexposed. Nonviable outcomes of stillbirth, neonatal death, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy occurred in 31% of the exposed and 8% of the unexposed. The difference in pregnancy outcomes between the groups is highly significant. The DES-exposed with transverse cervicovaginal ridges were more likely to experience a nonviable outcome. Overall 82% of the exposed and 93% of the unexposed had at least one live offspring.