Broken-down Endocrine Disruptors reform in the Dark casting Doubt on Environmental Risk Assessments

Hormone disrupting chemicals rise from the dead

Hormone disruptors rise from the dead
David Cwiertny, an environmental engineer at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, decided to find out whether the breakdown products of endocrine disruptors could be boosting their environmental impact.

Hormone-disrupting chemicals may be far more prevalent in lakes and rivers than previously thought. Environmental scientists have discovered that although these compounds are often broken down by sunlight, they can regenerate at night, returning to life like zombies. Their research focused on a steroid hormone used to speed growth in more than 20 million cattle in the US. The practice is banned in the European Union. – Read:

Le bisphénol A pénètre directement dans le sang au niveau de la bouche

BPA directement absorbé par voie sublinguale

Le bisphénol A directement absorbé par voie sublinguale
Le BPA diffuse à travers la muqueuse de la langue et de la bouche et accède directement à la circulation sanguine générale.

En 2010, des chercheurs de l’unité de Toxicologie alimentaire (Toxalim) de l’Inra (Institut national de la recherche agronomique) ont prouvé que le bisphénol A (BPA) pénètre l’organisme humain par la peau.

Récemment, une autre équipe de Toxalim et de l’Ecole nationale vétérinaire de Toulouse a décelé, une autre porte d’entrée du BPA par voie sublinguale – par les muqueuses de la langue et de la bouche – accédant ainsi directement à la circulation sanguine générale. – Lire:

Offspring of Women exposed in Utero to DiEthylStilbestrol: malignant pathology in Third Generation

Increased risk of ovarian cancer in DES Grand Daughters

DES Follow-up Study Summary

National Cancer Inst logo image
Increased risk of ovarian cancer in DES Grand Daughters.

Studies have shown a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in women who were given Diethylstilbestrol (DES) while they were pregnant. Their daughters, who were exposed to DES prenatally (before they were born), have an elevated risk of reproductive tract conditions, including a rare vaginal cancer. A question now being studied is whether DES health effects can be passed from the prenatally exposed women to their offspring (intergenerational transmission).

Studies in mice suggest that intergenerational transmission of DES health effects may be possible. Recent evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to DES may cause changes in the behavior of genes that influence hormones and the development of the female reproductive tract. These changes in gene behavior may be passed on to the next generation. Evidence for intergenerational transmission comes from mouse studies showing a higher number of reproductive tract tumors in the daughters of prenatally exposed female mice. We used the DES Follow-up Study data to assess whether cancer was more common in the offspring of women who were prenatally exposed to DES. Cancers affecting these offspring (the third generation) were identified using two approaches. First, we asked women participating in the DES Follow-up Study to report cancers diagnosed in their 8,216 third generation sons and daughters. Second, we asked 793 third generation daughters participating in the Third Generation Study to tell us about their cancers. We also asked the third generation daughters to tell us about their reproductive tract and breast biopsies. Next we confirmed the reported biopsies and cancers by checking the medical records of these third generation daughters.

Our results did not show an overall increase of cancer in the sons or in the daughters of prenatally DES-exposed women. However, based on only three cases, the number of ovarian cancers was higher than expected in the daughters of women exposed prenatally to DES. Because of the small number of cases, this result must be considered preliminary. The association may be a chance finding or may be due to the way in which the data were reported or collected. We did not find an association between DES and benign breast disease or reproductive tract conditions, but most of the women are too young for a meaningful assessment of these outcomes. Further follow-up is needed to assess whether prenatal DES exposure can affect the third generation in humans.

2008 Study Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes epigenetic changes that may be transmitted to the next generation. Specifically, these studies show an elevated incidence of reproductive tumors in the female offspring of prenatally-exposed mice.

METHODS:
We assessed cancer and benign pathology diagnoses occurring in the offspring of women whose prenatal exposure to DES (or lack of exposure) was verified by medical record. Our data arose from 2 sources: the mothers’ reports of cancers occurring in 8216 sons and daughters, and pathology-confirmed cancers and benign diagnoses self-reported by a subset of 793 daughters.

RESULTS:
Although statistical power is limited, our data are consistent with no overall increase of cancer in the sons or daughters of women exposed in utero to DES. Based on pathology-confirmed diagnoses reported by the daughters, we saw no association between DES and risk of benign breast disease or reproductive tract conditions. Based on 3 cases, the incidence of ovarian cancer was higher than expected in the daughters of women exposed prenatally to DES.

CONCLUSIONS:
Our data do not support an overall increase of cancer risk in the sons or daughters of women exposed prenatally to DES, but the number of ovarian cancer cases was greater than expected. While preliminary, this finding supports continued monitoring of these daughters.

Sources

  • Offspring of women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES): a preliminary report of benign and malignant pathology in the third generation,NCBI, PMID: 18223485, 2008 Mar;19(2):251-7. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e318163152a.
  • NCI, DES Follow-up Study Published Papers.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

New early Breast Cancer Test guiding adjuvant Chemotherapy Decisions

Oncotype DX is only suitable for certain types of breast cancer

'Chemotherapy-sparing' test offered
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK

A new breast cancer test – Oncotype DX – that could spare thousands of women the ordeal of chemotherapy has been approved – by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) – for use in the NHS in England and Wales.

The test works out the odds of a some tumours spreading round the body and should help doctors decide more accurately which patients will need chemotherapy.

Read Chemotherapy-sparing’ test offered, by James Gallagher, BBC News, 26 Sept 2013

Sources: Gene expression profiling and expanded immunohistochemistry tests for guiding adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in early breast cancer management: MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, IHC4 and Mammostrat
NICE, September 2013

DES and Breast Cancer:

Nos Enfants nous accuseront

Jean Paul Jaud traite de l’impact réel des pesticides sur les enfants

Le réalisateur Jean Paul Jaud brosse un portrait sans concession sur la tragédie environnementale qui guette la jeune génération: l’empoisonnement de nos campagnes par la chimie agricole (76 000 tonnes de pesticides déversées chaque année sur La France) et les dégâts occasionnés sur la santé publique. – Le site du film.

New speedy Breast Cancer Treatment agreed by the NHS Authorities

Women can undergo an injection in two to five minutes instead of enduring an intravenous drip for between an hour and 90 minutes

Two minute breast cancer treatment gets the green light for the NHS
Thousands of women with breast cancer could be offered a new jab which means regular treatment will take minutes instead of hours.

Currently, around 10,000 women a year are diagnosed with an aggressive form of Breast Cancer, which requires drugs to be given intravenously for long periods.
Regulators have now given the green light to a new type of treatment in which the same drug – Herceptin – is administered by injection, in as little as two minutes.

Read Two minute breast cancer treatment gets the green light for the NHS, by Laura Donnelly, 24 Sept 2013

DES and Breast Cancer:

The UK Clinical Trials situation is NUTS: unEthical, unScientific, unEconomic

House of Commons, Science and Technology Committee, 2013

Written evidence submitted by Sir Iain Chalmers
Sir Iain Chalmers says that the current situation is indeed “nuts”—unethical, unscientific and uneconomic nuts

Clinical trials are the experimental foundation on which modern medicine is built. Trials also make a significant contribution to the UK economy and can provide patients with an important means of accessing the most exciting and innovative new treatments, before they reach the market.

Here you can browse the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee report together with the Proceedings of the Committee.

Sir Iain Chalmers submitted this written evidence:

3.9 – I hope that the Science and Technology Committee will agree with Jeremy Paxman that the current situation is indeed “nuts”—unethical, unscientific and uneconomic nuts. “
” 3.10 – My efforts to prompt improvement in clinical trial transparency over most of the past 30 years have manifestly failed. However, it is becoming clear that Sense about Science’s recently launched public campaign (www.alltrials.net) and Ben Goldacre‘s bestselling book Bad Pharma may be “game changers”. For the first time in over 30 years I feel that there is reason to hope for substantive progress. I think that those who continue not to take under-reporting of research seriously will find themselves on the wrong side of history. I hope that the Committee will see to it that, after decades of inadequate action, something substantial will be done to deal with the current, indefensible situation. ”

Read:

Related posts:

Reproductive Outcomes in Men with prenatal Exposure to DiEthylStilbestrol

Increased risk of infertility in DES Sons

Reproductive outcomes in men with prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol
Increased risk of infertility in DES Sons

OBJECTIVE:
To examine prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in relation to male reproductive outcomes.

DESIGN:
Prospective observational study.

SETTING:
Participants were identified through record review, clinical trial participation, or an obstetrics clinic.

PATIENT(S):
A total of 1,085 DES-exposed and 1,047 unexposed men.

INTERVENTION(S):
Participants were exposed prenatally to DES through the mother’s obstetrics care or clinical trial participation.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):
Infertility; never fathering a pregnancy or live birth; number of pregnancies or live births fathered.

RESULT(S):
We found little evidence that prenatal DES exposure affects the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or live birth, or influences the mean number of fathered pregnancies or live births. Our data suggest that DES-exposed men are slightly more likely to experience infertility (relative risk [RR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). The DES dose and gestational timing did not influence infertility or the number of pregnancies or live births fathered, but results were inconsistent for dose effects on the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or a live birth.

CONCLUSION(S):
Prenatal DES exposure may be associated with a slightly increased risk of having an infertility experience, but does not increase the likelihood of never fathering a pregnancy or a live birth, or the number of pregnancies or live births fathered.

Sources

  • Reproductive Outcomes in Men with prenatal Exposure to DiEthylStilbestrol, NCBI, Dr R Hoover, PMID:16359959, Dec 2005.
  • Full text on Fertility and Sterility, S0015-0282(05)02956-0, February 16, 2005.
More about Dr Robert Hoover
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

More Fetal Risks linked to anti-Epileptic Drugs

Adverse birth outcomes after prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs

More Fetal Risks Linked to Epilepsy Drugs
Increased risks of low birth weight, preterm birth, and smaller-than-normal head circumference in infants born to mothers taking AEDs during pregnancy

Fetal exposure to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) appears to carry risks beyond those congenital defects currently listed on the products’ labels, a Danish researcher said

Background:
There is limited knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs and birth outcome.

Objective:
To study birth outcome in newborn children after prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs.

Patients and methods:
From Danish registers, we identified all children born from 1997 to 2008 and linked this with information on the mother’s prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. We used linear regression to study birth weight, gestational age and head circumference at birth, and binominal regression to study preterm birth (< 37 weeks) and “small for gestational age” (< 10 %). Estimates were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Furthermore, head circumference and birth weight were adjusted for gestational age, and gestational age was adjusted for birth weight.

Results:
We identified 679,762 newborn singletons. After adjustment for confounders, antiepileptic drugs exposure (n = 2928) was associated with reduced gestational age; -0.92 days (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.40 – -0.44), lower birth weight; – 31.96 g (95% CI: – 51.74 – – 12.18) and smaller head circumference -0.07 cm (95% CI: -0.14 – – 0.004) compared to non-exposed.
There was a higher risk of being born preterm (< 37 weeks) (adjusted Risk Ratio (aRR): 1.51 (95% CI: 1.32 – 1.72)) and a higher risk of being small for gestational age (aRR: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.10 – 1.34).

Conclusion:
Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs was associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational age, decrease in head circumference, and increased risk of preterm birth and being small for gestational age.

Read More Fetal Risks Linked to Epilepsy Drugs
by John Gever, MedPage Today, 24 Sep 2013

Sources: ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES AFTER PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS
Dr. Demet Kilic, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark

Related posts:

Environmental Chemicals are a Pregnancy Risk

ACOG Report: Exposure to Toxic Environmental Agents

Report: Environmental chemicals a pregnancy risk
A chemical should never be released if a concern exists regarding its effect on health.

Americans are exposed daily to environmental chemicals that could harm reproductive health, the nation’s largest groups of obstetricians and fertility specialists said Monday.  Their report urges doctors to push for stricter environmental policies to better identify and reduce exposure to chemicals that prove truly risky.

ABSTRACT

Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course. Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

Read Report: Environmental chemicals a pregnancy risk, by Lauran Neergaard, AP Medical Writer, 24 Sep 2013.

Sources: Exposure to Toxic Environmental Agents, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Number 575, October 2013 – Full PDF.

Related post: Chemical Exposures during Pregnancy: dealing with potential, but unproven, Risks to Child Health.