Despite knowing that CPM (contralateral prophylactic mastectomy) does not clearly improve survival, women who have the procedure do so, in part, to extend their lives. Many women overestimate their actual risk for cancer in the unaffected breast.
Greater mammary gland mass and increased risk of breast cancer for the DES-exposed
2013 Study Abstract:
Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the mechanisms are unknown. Larger bra cup size has also been associated with increased breast cancer risk, although not consistently. We investigated the relation of prenatal DES exposure to mammary gland mass, as estimated by bra cup size.
In 2006, 3,222 DES-exposed and 1,463 unexposed women reported their bra cup size, band size (chest circumference), and weight at age 20. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for DES exposure in relation to large bra cup size, with control for year of birth and study cohort. Primary analyses were carried out among women who reported a chest circumference of no more than 32 inches because their cup size would be less influenced by fat mass.
Within this group, DES-exposed women had an estimated 45 % increased prevalence (95 % CI 0.97-2.18) of large cup size (C or greater) relative to unexposed women. The PR was further increased among women in this group who had a body mass index of < 21 at age 20: PR = 1.83 (95 % CI 1.11-3.00). The PR for high-dose DES exposure relative to no exposure was 1.67, 95 % CI 1.02-2.73, whereas there was no association of bra cup size with low-dose exposure.
These results provide support for the hypothesis that in utero DES exposure may result in greater mammary gland mass. Taken together with previous research on bra size and breast cancer risk, these findings suggest a mechanism for a possible association of in utero DES exposure with increased risk of breast cancer.
Sources: Prenatal DES Exposure in Relation to Breast Size, NCBI, Dr R Hoover, PMID: 23775027, 2013 Sep;24(9):1757-61. doi: 10.1007/s10552-013-0248-3. Epub 2013 Jun 18. Full text link.
Animation video published by Breast Cancer Fund, 2013
This video was produced by Vassar College’s Environmental Risks and Breast Cancer project. It describes the critical periods of breast development and explains how exposures to toxic chemicals at susceptible stages can lead to increased risk for developing breast cancer later in life.
Une étude suggère que la Dépakine, anticonvulsif à base de valproate de sodium et d’acide valproïque, pourrait diminuer les comportements répétitifs chez les personnes souffrant de troubles du spectre autistique.
D’autres études révèlent toutefois que ce médicament peut également présenter de nombreux effets secondaires dangereux, voire mortels.
We asked women participating in a large, multi-centre study of prenatal DES exposure to report birth defects occurring among 4029 sons and 3808 daughters (i.e., the third generation). A subcohort of 793 third generation daughters was also queried for birth defects. We used logistic regression models to generate odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the association between prenatal DES exposure in the mother and birth defects in the offspring. Based on the mothers’ reports, overall birth defects were elevated in the sons (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.23) and in the daughters (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.44, 3.82). Most estimates of association were imprecise, but daughters appeared to have an excess of heart conditions (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.27, 16.34).
Our data suggest a possible association between the mother’s prenatal DES exposure and birth defects in their offspring, particularly in daughters. We cannot, however, rule-out the possible influence of reporting bias. In particular, the exposed daughters’ elevated risk of cardiac defects may be as a result of the underreporting of these conditions by unexposed mothers.
The DES Combined Cohort Follow-Up Study
The DES Third Generation Cohort Study
Agreement between mothers’ and daughters’ reports
Statistical analysis of birth defects
Mothers’ reports of birth defects in their offspring
Birth defects self-reported by third generation women
Birth defects in the sons and daughters of women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES), NCBI, PMID: 20002218, 2010 Apr;33(2):377-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01010.x. Epub 2009 Nov 30. Full text PMC2874639.
The toxic chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA), found in most canned foods on our supermarket shelves, disrupts fetal development and sets the stage for later-life diseases, including breast cancer, according to the Breast Cancer Fund’s report ” Disrupted Development: The Dangers of Prenatal BPA Exposure “, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on prenatal BPA exposure, just-released.
Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Researchers have uncovered an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in commercialized bottled water, according to a recent German study.
EDCs are man-made compounds that are commonly used in many plastics – like Bisphenol A (BPA) . The compounds have been found to interfere with the hormonal systems of several organisms, particularly reproductive systems.
The researchers found that the majority of bottled waters analyzed contained endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which could disrupt hormonal systems.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MSn experiments elucidated the molecule’s structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MSn data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably, dioctyl fumarates and maleates have been overlooked by science and regulation to date. This illustrates the need to identify novel toxicologically relevant compounds to establish a more holistic picture of the human exposome.
Ref: ” …the excesses in medical care and how to correct them… , …The evidence is compelling that we in the developed countries (especially the US) are overtesting for disease, overdiagnosing it, and overtreating. Wasteful medical care of milder or nonexistent problems does more harm than good to the individual patient, diverts scarce medical resources away from those who really need them, and is an unsustainable drain on the economy. ”
Chemical “brain drain” endangers generations of children
Philippe Grandjean, professor and chair of environmental medicine at the University of Southern Denmark and blogging on Chemical Brain Drain, says: ” In the United States, one of every six children has a neurodevelopmental delay or a neurological disease. No one knows how many of those children faced environmental exposures that contributed to their problems. Chemical brain drain appears as a silent pandemic that is almost impossible to quantify. Economists have calculated that the value of lost IQ points in children exposed to chemical brain drainers worldwide are worth hundreds of billions of dollars per year. Having studied brain toxicity for 30 years, I realized that I must speak up. The adverse impacts on developing brains are serious enough to demand a loud response. In my book ‘Only One Chance’, I conclude: We get only one chance to generate a nervous system, so developing brains need vigorous protection. ”