Hormones and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Low-Dose Effects and NonMonotonic Dose Responses

EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses

Hormones and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Low-Dose Effects and Nonmonotonic Dose Responses
EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses

Abstract:
For decades, studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have challenged traditional concepts in toxicology, in particular the dogma of “the dose makes the poison,” because EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses. Here, we review two major concepts in EDC studies: low dose and nonmonotonicity. Low-dose effects were defined by the National Toxicology Program as those that occur in the range of human exposures or effects observed at doses below those used for traditional toxicological studies. We review the mechanistic data for low-dose effects and use a weight-of-evidence approach to analyze five examples from the EDC literature. Additionally, we explore nonmonotonic dose-response curves, defined as a nonlinear relationship between dose and effect where the slope of the curve changes sign somewhere within the range of doses examined. We provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms responsible for generating these phenomena, plus hundreds of examples from the cell culture, animal, and epidemiology literature. We illustrate that nonmonotonic responses and low-dose effects are remarkably common in studies of natural hormones and EDCs. Whether low doses of EDCs influence certain human disorders is no longer conjecture, because epidemiological studies show that environmental exposures to EDCs are associated with human diseases and disabilities. We conclude that when nonmonotonic dose-response curves occur, the effects of low doses cannot be predicted by the effects observed at high doses. Thus, fundamental changes in chemical testing and safety determination are needed to protect human health.

Sources: The Endocrine Society, Endocrine Reviews
March 14, 2012 er.2011-1050

Full article: The Endocrine Society, Endocrine Reviews
33: 0000 –0000, 2012, March 14, 2012

All our posts about BPA – Endocrine Disruptors – Pesticides – Phthalates

Relabeling the Medications we call AntiDepressants

Do the data on the drugs we call antidepressants justify the label of “antidepressant”?

Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants
Do the data on the drugs we call antidepressants justify the label of “antidepressant”?

Abstract:
This paper raises the question about whether the data on the medications we call antidepressants justify the label of antidepressant. The authors argue that a true antidepressant should be clearly superior to placebo, should offer a risk/benefit balance that exceeds that of alternative treatments, should not increase suicidality, should not increase anxiety and agitation, should not interfere with sexual functioning, and should not increase depression chronicity. Unfortunately, these medications appear to fall short on all of these dimensions. Many of the “side effects” of these medications have larger effect sizes than the antidepressant effect size. To call these medications antidepressants may make sense from a marketing standpoint but may be misleading from a scientific perspective. Consumers deserve a label that more accurately reflects the data on the largest effects and helps them understand the range of effects from these medications. In other words, it may make just as much sense to call these medications antiaphrodisiacs as antidepressants because the negative effects on libido and sexual functioning are so common. It can be argued that a misleading label may interfere with our commitment to informed consent. Therefore, it may be time to stop calling these medications antidepressants.

Sources: NCBI, by Dr David Healy, PMID: 24278764, 4 June 2012

Full Article: Scientifica, by Dr David Healy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 965908, 6 pages, 28 May 2012

Our posts tagged Anti-Depressants – Drugs – SSRIs

The Person who takes Medicine must recover Twice, once from the Disease and once from the Medicine

~William Osler~ quote

The person who takes medicine must recover twice once from the disease and once from medicine
Sources: Anonymous Art of Revolution

All our posts about Prescriptions Drugs – FDA – Health News

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August 2013 FACSaware Peaceful Protest at London

Video by emma friedmann, published on 06 Aug 2013

FACSaware aims to raising global awareness of Fetal Anti Convulsant Syndromes and other teratogen-related syndromes. The Fetal AntiConvulsant Trust (F.A.C.T.) was set up in 2011 to campaign for responsibility from the government and drug company.

  • Video by emma friedmann, published on 06 Aug 2013
    • photos
    • poor regulations consequences
    • wish list for MHRA
  • Visit the FACS website and Twitter

Related posts:

The Drug Quality and Security Act signed for the FDA to track Drugs through the Distribution Chain

Obama Signs Drug Compounding, Tracking Bill Into Law

Obama Signs Drug Compounding, Tracking Bill Into Law
GovTrack: Easily track the activities of the U.S. Congress

President Barack Obama signed the The Drug Quality and Security Act on Wednesday that gives U.S. FDA health regulators greater oversight of bulk pharmaceutical compounding and strengthens the Food and Drug Administration ability to track pharmaceuticals drugs through the distribution chain.

Read Obama Signs Drug Compounding, Tracking Bill Into Law, HuffPost Politics, 27 Nov 2013 – Full PDF

All our posts about FDA – Prescriptions Drugs – Pharmaceutical Industry

Dietary Supplements: Vitamins can do more Harm than Good…

Vitamins in a box: Can damage the body’s own defences

Vitamins in a box: Can damage the body’s own defences
Hilde Nilsen, head researcher at the Biotechnology Centre, University of Oslo.

Vitamin supplements are a massive money-making industry. Each year, we spend billion of dollars on dietary supplements. We want to stay healthy and fit and help our bodies with this. But perhaps we are achieving precisely the opposite?

A new research, lead by Hilde Nilsen, head researcher at the Biotechnology Centre, University of Oslo, indicates that vitamin pills may upset the fragile balance in our cells and thus cause more harm than good.

Potential Damage to Body’s Defences, an Overview:

  • Maintenance of genes
  • A small worm provides the answer
  • Affecting lifespan with the aid of genes
  • Can do great harm

Read Vitamins in a box: Can damage the body’s own defences
by Trine Nickelsen, 26 Nov 2013

Related posts:

Partnership for a Drug-Free America

Dan Berger is Cartoonist behind Natural News

Mike Adams, the Health Ranger says:

 … The so-called War on Drugs, it turns out, is a very selective war that targets only those drugs that don’t make money for Big Pharma. Street drug chemicals, when packaged as medications, are openly allowed to be consumed by infants as young as six months old (under doctor’s orders, no less!), and there’s even an effort underway now to drug expectant mothers with antidepressant drugs just to ensure their children aren’t born with depression. That’s called “preventive medicine”. 

 The War on Drugs completely ignores the drug companies, even when teen abuse of prescription drugs is widespread and highly dangerous. Doped up on Ritalin, Oxycontin, SSRIs and other dangerous mind-altering drugs, millions of teens are becoming prescription drug addicts… Continue reading: Partnership for a Drug-Free America

Partnership for a Drug-Free America
Dan Berger is Cartoonist behind Natural News

All our posts about FDA – Prescriptions DrugsPharmaceutical Industry.

Watch the Diaporama, and the DES art photo set on flickr®  DES Diethylstilbestrol's photostream on Flickr

If you already have a flickr® account, add us as a contact
Email your photos to des.daughter@gmail.com with a short description and title :-)

Long-Term Use of Paracetamol during Pregnancy may be linked to Autism

Too much Tylenol in pregnancy could affect development

Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: a sibling-controlled cohort study
International Epidemiological Association, promoting epidemiological research and teaching in all fields of health

Expectant mothers often take Tylenol, with the active ingredient acetaminophen, to deal with back pain, headaches or mild fevers during pregnancy. Is it safe to take Tylenol during pregnancy? This question has been asked by millions of pregnant women. Typically, they hear from their doctor that Tylenol during pregnancy is completely safe for both the mother and her developing baby.

However, a new Norwegian study has found symptoms aligned with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Tylenol-exposed children.  Children exposed to long-term use of paracetamol during pregnancy had substantially adverse developmental outcomes at three years of age.

Read Too much Tylenol in pregnancy could affect development
by Kathryn Doyle, 22 Nov 2013

Read Tylenol Use During Pregnancy May be Linked to Autism
by Dr. Brent Hunter, 25 Nov 2013

Sources: Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: a sibling-controlled cohort study
International Epidemiological Association, 24 Oct 2013

No Reason to use Hormone Replacement Therapy to boost Mental Well-Being after Periods Stop

HRT: Estrogen Won’t Make Women Sharper After Menopause

Estrogen Won't Make Women Sharper After Menopause, Study Finds
Low levels of the hormone #estrogen are not to blame for mood swings and poor memory after #menopause, a new study suggests.

Low levels of the hormone estrogen are not to blame for mood swings and poor memory after menopause, a new study suggests.

Based on this finding, the researchers believe there’s no reason to use hormone replacement therapy to boost mental well-being after periods stop.

Abstract:

Variations in the hormonal milieu after menopause may influence neural processes concerned with cognition, cognitive aging, and mood, but findings are inconsistent. In particular, cognitive effects of estradiol may vary with time since menopause, but this prediction has not been assessed directly using serum hormone concentrations. We studied 643 healthy postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy who were recruited into early (-6 y after menopause) and late (10+ y after menopause) groups. Women were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. They provided serum for free estradiol, estrone, progesterone, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin measurements. Cognitive outcomes were standardized composite measures of verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and global cognition. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted for each hormone separately and after adjustment for other hormone levels. Endogenous sex steroid levels were unassociated with cognitive composites, but sex hormone binding globulin was positively associated with verbal memory. Results for early and late groups did not differ significantly, although progesterone concentrations were significantly positively associated with verbal memory and global cognition in early group women. Hormone concentrations were not significantly related to mood. Results fail to support the hypothesis that temporal proximity to menopause modifies the relation between endogenous serum levels of estradiol and verbal memory, executive functions, or global cognition. Physiological variations in endogenous postmenopausal levels of sex steroid hormones are not substantially related to these aspects of cognition or mood; positive associations for progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin merit additional study.

Sources:

Estrogen Won’t Make Women Sharper After Menopause, Study Finds, healthday, 25 Nov 2013

Cognition, mood, and physiological concentrations of sex hormones in the early and late postmenopause, PNAS, 23 Oct 2013

Supporting Information, Henderson et al. 10.1073/pnas.1312353110

More information:

Better UK Support, Treatment and Research for Millions of Patients with rare Diseases

UK Rare Diseases Strategy launched by Health Minister Lord Howe

Abstract:

Better support, treatment and research for millions of patients with rare diseases
The best place to find UK government information and services online

The UK’s first strategy to help build understanding of rare diseases and boost research to find effective treatments and therapies was launched by Health Minister Lord Howe today.

The UK Rare Diseases Strategy aims to ensure that none of the three million people in the UK who are affected by rare diseases are left behind.

For the first time, it sets out a UK-wide vision for building on our reputation as a world leader in rare disease research, including revolutionary genomic research to help transform diagnosis and treatment.

Key elements of the strategy include:

  • a clear personal care plan for every patient that brings together health and care services, with more support for them and their families
  • support for specialised clinical centres to offer the best care and support
  • better education and training for health and social care professionals to help ensure earlier diagnosis and access to treatment
  • promoting the UK as a world leader in research and development to improve the understanding and treatment of rare diseases
Sources
Is DES a rare disease? How much do you know about DES?