Choose the Right Fish to Eat, Infographic

Mercury Pollution is Rising

Mercury has been well documented to be an endocrine system disrupting chemical in animals and people, disrupting function of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, enzyme production processes, and many hormonal functions at very low levels of exposure. Breaking plastics could be leaching harmful chemicals into the ocean ; and regarding mercury, this infographic should help you choose the right fish to eat – and those to avoid…

Choose-the-right-fish-to-eat infographic
Exposure to mercury – even small amounts – may cause serious health problems, and is a threat to the development of the child in utero and early in life – via @ThyroidNation

* Edible Fish Infographic: Mercury Is An Endocrine Disruptor, Thyroid Nation.

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EDCs – Cancer in Men – Prostate and Testicular Cancer

This post is part of our new “EDCs HEAL serie“

Prostate Cancer

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All EU countries are experiencing strong rises in prostate cancer and in testicular cancer.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the EU representing 25% of all male new cancer cases diagnosed. 1 in 7 men in UK will develop this condition during his
lifetime. All European countries (except those with high incidence already) have seen dramatically increasing incidence trends in recent years.

Testicular Cancer

All EU countries are experiencing strong rises in testicular cancer. Incidence has doubled over the past 25 years. Cancer of the testes is now the most common cancer of young men, peaking at 25-30 years.

Sources – @HealthandEnv HEAL News

Pregnant DES Daughters and their Offspring

DES Exposure can have a Trans-Generational Effect

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Third-generation women should be examined carefully for presence of DES-associated changes. An increased rate of hypospadias has recently been reported in third-generation men

I am a 34-year-old woman in my second trimester of pregnancy. My mother took diethylstilbestrol when she was pregnant with me. Could my expected child be affected by this?

Animal studies suggest the child could be affected, but little data on humans strongly support this. You could plan to have your child monitored for a potential, though unlikely, effect.

Diethylstilboestrol (DES)  is a potent synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women between 1938 and 1971 to improve outcome of pregnancy. Results of several epidemiologic studies in the early 1970s showed that use of DES during pregnancy was associated with a substantial increase in vaginal and cervical clear-cell adenocarcinoma and genital tract abnormalities in adolescent girls exposed to DES in utero. There was also an increased risk of first- and second-trimester spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and preterm deliveries among daughters who had been exposed.

An association between in utero exposure to DES and abnormalities of men’s urogenital systems was also found. The most common abnormalities are epididymal cysts, undescended testes, and small testes. A recent study suggested an increased incidence of testicular cancer among men exposed in utero to DES.

When early reports of increased frequency of uterine and ovarian adenocarcinoma in offspring of mice exposed in utero to DES were first published in the mid-1980s, they raised concern regarding possible adverse effects on the third generation of humans exposed to DES.

A study of 28 daughters (mean age 20 years) of women exposed to DES in utero showed that these third-generation women had no abnormalities of the genital tract, and no cases of endometrial, ovarian, cervical, or vaginal carcinoma, or intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix or vagina were detected. Review of their mothers’ records indicated that 61.5% of the mothers exposed to DES in utero had structural changes of the cervix, upper vagina, or vaginal epithelium. The main limitations of this study were the small sample size and the age of the women, who might have been too young to reflect the true rate of subsequent genital malignancies.

The absence of abnormalities of the lower genital tract in third-generation women compared with the high frequency of these abnormalities in their mothers suggests that third-generation carry-over effects of DES exposure are rare.

A recent case report of an ovarian malignancy in a third-generation adolescent raised the possibility of an association between her malignancy and her grandmother’s use of DES. The authors described a 15-year-old girl with small cell carcinoma of the ovary whose maternal grandmother had been taking DES while she was pregnant with the patient’s mother. Although this is an anecdotal case, the rarity of this disorder suggests that DES exposure could have a trans-generational effect.

An increased rate of hypospadias has recently been reported in third-generation men. A Dutch cohort study compared 205 sons of women who were exposed to DES in utero with 8934 men with no such history. Four (2%) of the exposed sons had hypospadias, compared with nine (0.01%) in the control group.

Differences between human and mice models in the effects of DES on the third generation suggest that the effect observed in mice is much greater than in humans. Nevertheless, some authors recommend that third-generation women should be examined carefully for presence of DES-associated changes.

A variety of theories have been proposed for the mechanism of action of multi-generational effects of DES. In mice, the carcinogenicity of DES can apparently be transmitted from prenatally exposed offspring to the next generation. Germ cell mutation has been implicated as the mode of transmission of the genotoxic effect. Imprinting might be another mode of transmission.

  • Pregnant “DES daughters” and their offspringNCBI, PMCID: PMC1472948, Can Fam Physician. Apr 10, 2005; 51(4): 493–494.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Agricultural Pesticides during Pregnancy linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism risk is higher near pesticide-treated fields

Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study

Pesticide Exposure during Pregnancy linked to Autism.

Gestational exposure to several common agricultural pesticides can induce developmental neurotoxicity in humans, and has been associated with developmental delay and autism.

To evaluate whether residential proximity to agricultural pesticides during pregnancy is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or developmental delay (DD) in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) Study.

The CHARGE study is a population-based case-control study of ASD, developmental delay (DD), and typical development. For 970 participants, commercial pesticide application data from the California Pesticide Use Report (1997-2008) were linked to the addresses during pregnancy. Pounds of active ingredient applied for organophophates, organochlorines, pyrethroids, and carbamates were aggregated within 1.25km, 1.5km, and 1.75km buffer distances from the home. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of exposure comparing confirmed cases of ASD (n = 486) or DD (n = 168) with typically developing referents (n = 316).

Approximately one-third of CHARGE Study mothers lived, during pregnancy, within 1.5 km (just under one mile) of an agricultural pesticide application. Proximity to organophosphates at some point during gestation was associated with a 60% increased risk for ASD, higher for 3rd trimester exposures [OR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (1.1, 3.6)], and 2nd trimester chlorpyrifos applications: OR = 3.3 [95% CI = (1.5, 7.4)]. Children of mothers residing near pyrethroid insecticide applications just prior to conception or during 3rd trimester were at greater risk for both ASD and DD, with OR’s ranging from 1.7 to 2.3. Risk for DD was increased in those near carbamate applications, but no specific vulnerable period was identified.

This study of ASD strengthens the evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders with gestational pesticide exposures, and particularly, organophosphates and provides novel results of ASD and DD associations with, respectively, pyrethroids and carbamates. Children of mothers who live near agricultural areas, or who are otherwise exposed to organophosphate, pyrethroid, or carbamate pesticides during gestation may be at increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders.
Further research on gene-by-environment interactions may reveal vulnerable sub-populations.

  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study, Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307044, 23 June 2014 – PDF
  • Supplemental Material, Aerial image showing further descriptions of the study population and exposure model, ehp.1307044.s001.
  • Autism risk higher near pesticide-treated fields, study says, Environmental Health News, autism-and-pesticides, June 23, 2014

EDCs – Cancer in Women – Breast Cancer

This post is part of our new “EDCs HEAL serie“

Breast cancer

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There is a dramatic rise in incidence of breast cancer ithroughout Europe.

Over the past 30 years, breast cancer has increased dramatically throughout Europe ; 1 in 8 women in Europe will develop this condition during her lifetime.

Similarly, endometrial cancer incidence rates have risen over the last 30 years, speci!cally for the estrogen-dependent type.

Sources – @HealthandEnv HEAL News

  • Diseases and conditions, Breast cancer, 18 June 2014.
  • Health costs in the EU, how much is related to EDCsFull Report.

Antidepressant use during Pregnancy may lead to Childhood Obesity, Diabetes

Women who take antidepressants during pregnancy may be unknowingly predisposing their infants to type 2 diabetes and obesity later in life

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Women who take antidepressants during pregnancy may be unknowingly predisposing their infants to type 2 diabetes and obesity later in life,

Maternal use of a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, resulted in increased fat accumulation and inflammation in the liver of the adult offspring, researchers have demonstrated for the first time in an animal model. This raises new concerns about the long-term metabolic complications in children born to women who take SSRI antidepressants during pregnancy.

Read Antidepressant use during pregnancy may lead to childhood obesity, diabetes, McMaster University, ScienceDaily, 140621213019, June 21, 2014

Multi-generational Carcinogenesis from DiEthylStilbestrol investigated by Blastocyst Transfers in Mice

DES usage review buttress the need for adequate and rigorous research into the use of drugs in pregnancy and ensure that they do more good than harm before being introduced

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DiEthylStilbestrol DES also has a multi-generational effect transmitted through the blastocyst.

Previous studies have shown that a carcinogenic effect can be transmitted from female mice exposed prenatally to diethylstilboestrol (DES) to their female offspring. Furthermore, male mice exposed pre-natally to DES can transmit a carcinogenic effect to their offspring through their germ cells.

To study how multi-generational carcinogenesis is transmitted through females exposed pre-natally to DES, the technique of blastocyst transfer was utilized. Blastocysts from strain CD-1 mice exposed pre-natally to vehicle were transferred to mice exposed pre-natally to DES. Among 143 offspring from these transfers, there were 10 ovarian adenomas and 10 uterine adenocarcinomas. Among 92 offspring from blastocyst transfers between mice exposed pre-natally to vehicle only, there was 1 ovarian adenoma and 1 uterine adenocarcinoma. Thus the pre-natal exposure of the host to DES produced a maternal environment which increased the incidence of ovarian and uterine tumors.

The reverse type of transfer was also performed, in which blastocysts from female mice exposed pre-natally to DES were transferred into mice exposed to vehicle only pre-natally. Among 99 offspring derived from DES-exposed germ cells, 6 developed ovarian adenomas and 16 developed uterine adenocarcinomas.

Thus DES also has a multi-generational effect transmitted through the blastocyst, which is consistent with fetal germ cell mutation from DES.

  • Multi-generational carcinogenesis from diethylstilbestrol investigated by blastocyst transfers in miceNCBI, PMID: 7705955, Int J Cancer. 1995 Apr 10;61(2):249-52.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

EDCs – Abnormalities of the Penis and Testicles in Baby Boys

This post is part of our new “EDCs HEAL serie“

Congenital malformations of male sex organs

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Congenital malformations, such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism are increasing or levelling off at unfavourably high levels.

Congenital malformations, such as hypospadias (birth defect of the penis) and cryptorchidism (non-descending testes), are increasing or levelling off at unfavourably high levels.

As many as one in 15 boys are born with cryptorchidism ; annual cases of cryptorchidism have doubled in 10 years.

Sources – @HealthandEnv HEAL News

Stilbestrol (Diethylstilbestrol) annotated Bibliography

This october 1941 pamphlet by the pharmaceutical corporation Merck & Co. Inc., lists 148 articles on DES

Stilbestrol (diethylstilbestrol) annotated bibliography
This october 1941 pamphlet lists 249 articles on DES with 126 on clinical uses.


The previous – 1940 edition – Diethylstilbestrol; annotated bibliography pamphlet by the pharmaceutical corporation Merck & Co. Inc., c 1941. lists 148 articles on DES.

This october 1941 revision lists 249 articles on DES with 126 on clinical uses.

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More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources