Nutrient intakes are exceeding the safe limits established by the Institute of Medicine
2014 Study Abstract
Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar industry in the U.S., and their use is increasing exponentially. Additionally, many foods and beverages are increasingly being fortified with single or multiple vitamins and minerals. Consequently, nutrient intakes are exceeding the safe limits established by the Institute of Medicine. In this paper, we examine the benefits and drawbacks of vitamin and mineral supplements and increasing consumption of fortified foods (in addition to dietary intake) in the U.S. population. The pros and cons are illustrated using population estimates of folic acid, calcium and vitamin D intake, highlighting concerns related to overconsumption of nutrients that should be addressed by regulatory agencies.
Sources and more information
Food Fortification and Supplement Use – Are there Health Implications? NCBI PubMed PMID: 25036360, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Jul 18:0.
Several U.S. cohorts of women with documented exposure in utero to DES have been followed by mailed questionnaires since the 1970s. Comparison subjects are unexposed women of the same ages. In 1997, participants were asked about congenital abnormalities in their children. We calculated prevalence odds ratios for the risk of hypospadias in sons of exposed mothers relative to sons of unexposed mothers using generalized estimating equations to adjust for multiple sons per mother and controlling for maternal age at the son’s birth.
We obtained data from 3916 exposed and 1746 unexposed women. These women reported a total of 13 liveborn sons with hypospadias (10 exposed, 3 unexposed). The prevalence odds ratio for risk of hypospadias among the exposed was 1.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.4-6.8).
Our findings do not support a greatly increased risk of hypospadias among the sons of women exposed to DES in utero, as has been previously reported.
Hypospadias in sons of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero, NCBIPMID: 15951681, Epidemiology. 2005 Jul;16(4):583-6.