Un prix du médicament prohibitif en France

Comment sont fixés les prix de nos médicaments?

Plus de 3 milliards de boites de médicament ont été vendues en 2013 soit 48 boites par an et par personne pour un budget de près de 500€… Mais comment sont fixés les prix de nos médicaments? Les pharmaciens et les médecins nous proposent-ils toujours le moins cher?

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Prenatal antibiotic linked to increased risk for developing asthma in children

Pregnant Women with Asthma Need to Curb Urge to ask for Antibiotics

PREGNANT-WOMAN
wice as many children born to mothers who took antibiotics during pregnancy were diagnosed with asthma by age 3 than children born to mothers who didn’t take prenatal antibiotics, a recent study has shown.

A recent study found that 22 percent of the 103 children born to mothers who took antibiotics during pregnancy were diagnosed with asthma by age 3. In contrast, only 11 percent of the children born to mothers who didn’t take antibiotics prenatally were similarly diagnosed.

Recent discussions of antibiotic use have centered on the fact that overuse has increased the number of drug-resistant germs, and decreased the effectiveness of many treatments.

Sources and more Information

  • Relationship between prenatal antibiotic use and asthma in at-risk children, Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, S1081-1206(14)00855-2, December 18, 2014.
  • Pregnant Women with Asthma Need to Curb Urge to ask for Antibiotics, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, news, March 3, 2015.

Time now for a legal light on EU lobbying?

A European Parliament journalist interviews Sylvie Guillaume

The new Transparency Register was to end the opaque lobbying practices dogging the EU, but will it be effective? We ask a leading MEP on the issue Sylvie Guillaume.

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Brief exposure to low levels of environmental estrogens early in life can increase body weight

Developmental exposure to estrogenic compounds and obesity

Fatmouse
This 2005 study data supports the idea that brief exposure to low levels of environmental estrogens early in life can increase body weight with age.

2005 Study Abstract

For >20 years, research in our laboratory has focused on the effects of estrogenic compounds on development and differentiation. Our working premise has been that the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by chemicals with estrogenic or endocrine disrupting activity and that exposure to these chemicals during critical stages of differentiation may have permanent long-lasting consequences, some of which may not be expressed or detected until later in life. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a well-known example of such a chemical; thus, we have used DES as a model chemical to study environmental estrogens.

DES, a synthetic estrogen, was widely prescribed from the 1940s through the 1970s for the prevention of threatened miscarriage. A range of 2–8 million treated pregnancies worldwide has been estimated. Today it is well recognized that prenatal DES treatment results in a low incidence of neoplasia in the female offspring and a high incidence of benign abnormalities in both the male and female offspring.

To study the mechanisms involved in the toxicity of DES, we developed an animal model using outbred CD-1 mice treated with DES by subcutaneous injections on GD 9–16 (the period of major organogenesis in the mouse) or days 1–5 of neonatal life (a period of cellular differentiation of the reproductive tract and a critical period of immune and behavioral differentiation). The prenatal DES animal model has successfully duplicated and, in some cases, predicted many of the alterations (structural, function, cellular, and molecular) observed in similarly DES-exposed humans.

Although our major focus has been on reproductive tract abnormalities, we also examined the effects of DES on body weight over a wide dose range of exposure. High prenatal DES doses (10–100 μg/kg of maternal body weight) caused a decrease in the offspring’s adult body weight; likewise, high neonatal DES doses (1000 μg/kg/day on days 1–5 [1 mg/kg/day]) caused a decrease in body weight later in life. However, low doses of DES (either prenatal or neonatal) caused an increase in body weight; Figure 1 illustrates control and neonatal DES 0.001 mg/kg/day treatment (DES-0.001). Note that body weight was not different between DES-exposed and unexposed controls during the time of treatment and shortly thereafter, but it gradually reached significance by 6 weeks of age. Further, data from our laboratory indicate that this increase in body weight in DES-exposed mice is associated with an increase in the percentage of body fat. Using Lunar PIXImus mouse densitometry (Lunar PIXImus, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), we measured the percentage of fat in untreated controls and neonatal DES-treated mice at 16 weeks of age. As seen in the image, mice treated neonatally with DES are markedly larger than controls. Measurements obtained from densitometry show a significant increase in the estimated body weight, estimated fat weight, and percent fat compared to controls. Neonatal exposure to other estrogens such as 2OH estradiol (20 mg/kg/day) and 4OH estradiol (0.1 mg/kg/day), which are approximately equal estrogenic doses to DES-0.001, also caused an increase in body weight at 4 months of age, suggesting that DES is not a unique estrogenic chemical in causing this increased obesity. Further, neonatal exposure to the naturally occurring phytoestrogen genistein at 50 mg/kg/day, an approximately equal estrogenic dose to DES, caused a significant increase in body weight at 3 and 4 months of age compared to untreated controls. We are currently comparing the weight of fat depots from mice exposed neonatally to various environmental estrogens to determine possible alterations in adipose tissue, including size of specific fat pads and hormone levels (e.g., leptin, adiponectin). By 18 months age, differences in body weight between genistein-treated and untreated controls are difficult to determine due to large individual animal variability within groups.

Taken together, our data support the idea that brief exposure to low levels of environmental estrogens early in life increases body weight as the mice age. Whether our results can be extrapolated to humans, as in the reproductive abnormalities from the DES mouse model, remains to be determined, but this is a fruitful area for further research. In addition, the use of this mouse model to study mechanisms involved in altered weight homeostasis (direct and/or endocrine feedback loops, e.g., ghrelin, leptin) by environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals is an important basic research area that may shed light on the future prevention and treatment of obesity.

Sources and Full Study
  • Developmental exposure to estrogenic compounds and obesity, NIEHS Symposium Proceedings, Retha R. NewboldMay, DOI: 10.1002/bdra.20147, 15 JUN 2005.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

International Women’s Day next March 8th

What are you doing on March 8th to celebrate women?

Women's-Day
What are you doing on March 8th to celebrate women? Image via @Feminspire

March 8th, women around the world are joining together to fight sexism and raise civil awareness.
But what exactly is International Women’s Day, and why is it so significant?
Aren’t we trying to fight sexism and raise civil awareness every day?
And what are you doing to celebrate women?

On Flickr®

Preimplantation genetic screening can increase #IVF success rates

PGS helps find embryos with the right number of chromosomes. Transferring a single embryo reduces risks

Trying to determine the health of an embryo by conventional microscopic methods has its limitations. With next-generation sequencing technologies and Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) from Illumina, we can select healthier embryos that are more likely to result in successful pregnancies.

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How Cancer Research UK is working with GPs to improve early diagnosis

Rebecca Banks: “Spotting cancer earlier could save 5,000 lives a year”

Content on this post is produced by Cancer Research UK

Rebecca Banks, senior primary care engagement manager at Cancer Research UK, on the charity’s ambitious goals for the next 12 months and current recruitment opportunities within her team. Photograph: @CR_UK

Cancer Research UK is the world’s leading cancer charity dedicated towards saving lives, and the second biggest funder of cancer research worldwide. In the last 40 years, we’ve helped double the cancer survival rate so that two in four people now survive their disease. But this is just the beginning. We have now set ourselves a target that within 20 years, three in four people will beat cancer.

We will only achieve this by working in partnership with healthcare professionals. Primary care provides the first point of contact for nine out of 10 patients in the healthcare system. It is in primary care that potential cancer symptoms are first assessed and it is therefore essential that we give GPs and the primary care community the support they need to help spot cancer earlier.

Rebecca Banks, the senior primary care engagement manager at Cancer Research UK (CRUK), tells us about how the charity is working with the primary care community to help increase the number of people who survive their cancer.

Much of CRUK’s work involves researching new, more effective treatments that will become the therapies of the future,” she says. “We also fund research into cancer awareness, prevention and early diagnosis and use all of this information to inform the public and influence cancer policy and clinical practice for patients’ benefit. Our facilitator programme takes this research and translates it into practice to make a positive impact on people’s lives immediately, in local areas.

Even though cancer touches each and every one of us, the average GP sees fewer than eight cancer cases a year. And spotting the earliest signs of cancer is not always easy, there are more than 200 types of cancer and symptoms can be vague. Spotting cancer earlier could save 5,000 lives a year, so if we are to save lives now, then supporting doctors to improve early diagnosis is key.”

We are committed to working with the NHS to support GPs and other primary care health professionals to do this,” says Banks. “We work hard to provide the latest information, practical tools and education to help these key frontline professionals to identify the earliest signs of cancer. The earlier a cancer is detected, the better the chance a person has of beating their disease.”

Banks’ team are embarking on ambitious plans to expand the programme across the UK.

The aim is that by 2018, we’ll have CRUK facilitators in every region across the country,” she explains. “Each facilitator will visit GP practices in their area and work in partnership with local NHS professionals to improve cancer prevention, early diagnosis and survival. Essentially they will be catalysts for change.”

Ideal candidates will have firsthand experience of the challenges facing primary care and relish working with others to make a difference. They thrive on knowing that no two work days are ever the same. Facilitators also need to build and maintain successful relationships. It is through mutual trust and understanding that we will be able to help GPs and their practice in their work, diagnosing cancer earlier and giving more people, more time with their families. Without this work we will not be able to succeed in our goal of beating cancer.”

This large team of dedicated CRUK facilitators will not just support GPs and practice staff, they will also provide a valuable feedback network to the charity’s research arm, allowing us to respond to emerging healthcare needs.

Banks says: “Already, feedback from our facilitators has led to CRUK working on resources that will help local areas increase their bowel screening uptake, an important element in the early diagnosis of bowel cancer. We heard what the need was and have responded on this.”

International Women’s Day Doodle 2014

March 8 is the International Women’s Day (IWD), a global day of recognition

Women have historically been underrepresented in almost all fields: science, school curricula, business, politics—and, sadly, doodles. In addition to Google’s continued effort for doodle diversity and inclusion, last year’s truly International Women’s Day doodle features a host of inspiring women from around the world, including the President of Lithuania, a brave Pakistani education activist, an ever-curious explorer, and dozens more. Find the full list of participants.

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