Les Alimenteurs – L’importance des lobbyings dans notre alimentation

Documentaire de Stéphane Horel et Brigitte Rossigneux, France 5, 2012

Documentaire de Stéphane Horel et Brigitte Rossigneux, France 5 (2012).

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  • Avec :
    Olivier Andrault, chargé de mission alimentation nutrition, UFC-Que Choisir
    Arnaud Basdevant, chef du service nutrition, hôpital La Pitié-Salpétrière (Paris) et président du comité de pilotage du plan Obésité
    Roselyne Bachelot, ministre de la Santé (2007-2010)
    Xavier Bertrand, ministre de la Santé (2005-2007), ministre du Travail, de l’Emploi et de la Santé (2010-2012)
    Jean-Michel Borys, créateur d’EPODE (Ensemble prévenons l’obésité des enfants)
    Valérie Boyer, députée UMP des Bouches-du-Rhône
    Serge Hercberg, nutritionniste, directeur du Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)
    Martin Hirsch, ancien directeur de l’Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation (AFSSA 1999-2005), auteur de Pour en finir avec les conflits d’intérêts (Stock, 2010)
    Christine Kelly, membre du Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA)
    David Leloup, journaliste indépendant, ONG Observatoire de l’Europe industrielle (CEO — Bruxelles)
    Bruno Le Maire, ministre de l’Alimentation, de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche (2010-2012)
    Catherine Lemorton, députée PS de Haute-Garonne
    Philippe Martin, député PS du Gers, président du Conseil général du Gers
    Pierre Meneton, chercheur à l’Institut national pour la recherche médicale
    (INSERM), auteur de Le sel, ce tueur caché (Favre, 2009)
    Gérard Pascal, directeur de recherche honoraire à l’Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)
    Linda Pavy, directrice santé au cabinet de lobbying et de relations publiques Burson-Marsteller
    Carl Schlyter, député Vert au Parlement européen (Suède).
  • Les Alimenteurs, site de l’auteure, sur france5.et sur Rutube.
  • Compilation de vidéos sur les produits chimiques et pesticides sur YouTube.

Harnessing the benefits of the placebo effect in medicine

A perspective from the NEJM on placebo effects in medicine

placebo drugs image
The New England Journal of Medicine interviewed Professor Ted Kaptchuk on the outlook for harnessing the benefits of placebo effects in medicine. The placebo effect by Patrik Nygren.

Medicine has used placebos as a methodologic tool to challenge, debunk, and discard ineffective and harmful treatments. But placebo effects are another story; they are not bogus. With proper controls for spontaneous remission and regression to the mean, placebo studies use placebos to elucidate and quantify the clinical, psychological, and biologic effects of immersion in a clinical environment. In other words, research on placebo effects can help explain mechanistically how clinicians can be therapeutic agents in the ways they relate to their patients in connection with, and separate from, providing effective treatment interventions. Of course, placebo effects are modest as compared with the impressive results achieved by lifesaving surgery and powerful, well-targeted medications. Yet we believe such effects are at the core of what makes medicine a healing profession.

Read Placebo Effects in Medicine, a Perspective from The New England Journal of Medicine, Ted J. Kaptchuk, and Franklin G. Miller, Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2015, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1504023, July 8, 2015.

Heightened fracture risk for some antidepressant drug used to reduce symptoms of the menopause

Menopausal women using SSRIs “at risk for fractures”

image of crutches
SSRIs – a class of antidepressant drug used to reduce symptoms of the menopause – may increase the risk of bone fractures, according to new research. Image of Crutches by mnd.ctrl.

2015 Study Abstract

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were recently approved by the FDA to treat vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. No prior study has directly examined whether fracture risk is increased among perimenopausal women who initiate SSRIs or among a population of women without mental disorders more generally.

Female patients without mental illness, aged 40–64 years, who initiated SSRIs were compared with a cohort who initiated H2 antagonists (H2As) or proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in 1998–2010, using data from a claims database. Standardised mortality ratio weighting was applied using the propensity score odds of treatment to adapt the distribution of characteristics among patients starting H2A/PPIs to the distribution among SSRI initiators. Poisson regression estimated risk differences and Cox proportional hazards regression the RR of fractures among new users of SSRIs versus H2A/PPIs. Primary analyses allowed for a 6-month lag period (ie, exposure begins 6 months after initiation) to account for a hypothesised delay in the onset of any clinically meaningful effect of SSRIs on bone mineral density.

Fracture rates were higher among the 137 031 SSRI initiators compared with the 236 294 H2A/PPI initiators, with HRs (SSRI vs H2A/PPI) over 1, 2 and 5 years of 1.76 (95% CI 1.33 to 2.32), 1.73 (95% CI 1.33 to 2.24) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.14), respectively.

SSRIs appear to increase fracture risk among middle-aged women without psychiatric disorders, an effect sustained over time, suggesting that shorter duration of treatment may decrease fracture risk. Future efforts should examine whether this association pertains at lower doses.

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Developmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and the Obesity Epidemic

Environmental chemicals are contributing to overweight and obesity

image of Control-and-DES-treated-Mice
Image captured with PIXImus™ mouse densitometry at 6 months of age. Images are representative of control (left) and DES (right) treated mice. Note that DES mice are significantly larger. Image by NCBI, 2007.

2007 Study Abstract

Xenobiotic and dietary compounds with hormone-like activity can disrupt endocrine signaling pathways that play important roles during perinatal differentiation and result in alterations that are not apparent until later in life. Evidence implicates developmental exposure to environmental hormone-mimics with a growing list of health problems. Obesity is currently receiving needed attention since it has potential to overwhelm health systems worldwide with associated illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the literature that proposes an association of exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals with the development of obesity. We describe an animal model of developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a potent perinatal endocrine disruptor with estrogenic activity, to study mechanisms involved in programming an organism for obesity. This experimental animal model provides an example of the growing scientific field termed “the developmental origins of adult disease” and suggests new targets of abnormal programming by endocrine disrupting chemicals.

Summary and Conclusions

Taken together, our data supports the idea that brief exposure early in life to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, especially those with estrogenic activity like DES, increases body weight as the mice age. These data also suggest that these chemicals may contribute to overweight and obesity and other obesity-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether our results can be extrapolated to humans as the reproductive abnormalities from the DES mouse model did, remain to be determined but it provides a fruitful area of further research. In addition, the use of this animal model to study “obesogens” and mechanisms involved in altered weight homeostasis (direct and/or endocrine feedback loops, i.e., ghrelin, leptin, etc.) by environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals is an important basic research area that may be addressed by using this model. No longer can we assume than overweight and obesity are simply personal choices, but we have to consider that complex events including environmental chemicals are contributing to this mounting human health problem.

  • Developmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and the Obesity Epidemic, Retha R. Newbold, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Ryan J. Snyder,1 Terry M. Phillips and Wendy N. Jefferson, Reprod Toxicol doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.12.010, NCBI PMCID: PMC1931509, 2007 Jan 17.
  • All images, PMC 17321108, 2007.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Best lot of cattle I’ve fed, reports Stilbosol feeder

DES advert, FFA National Future Farmer, 1958

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Stilbosol patenting turned the cattle feed industry upside down in the mid fifties with its phenomenal use by the farmers.
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More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Antibiotic prescriptions for children and risk of lifelong metabolic disturbances

Usage of Antibiotics to Treat Children

antibiotic-in-child image
Antibiotic exposure during a critical window of early development disrupts the bacterial landscape of the gut and permanently reprograms the body’s metabolism, setting up a predisposition for obesity. Image by developachild.

An August 2014 study suggested that antibiotic exposure during a critical window of early development disrupts the bacterial landscape of the gut, home to trillions of diverse microbes, and permanently reprograms the body’s metabolism, setting up a predisposition to obesity. Moreover, the study shows that it is altered gut bacteria, rather than the antibiotics, driving the metabolic effects.

A June 2015 animal study by NYU Langone Medical Center researchers adds to growing evidence that multiple courses of commonly used antibiotics may have a significant impact on children’s development.

Sources and more information
  • Repeated courses of antibiotics may profoundly alter children’s development, medicalxpress, June 30, 2015.
  • Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment, nature doi:10.1038/ncomms8486. 30 June 2015.
  • Early antibiotic exposure leads to lifelong metabolic disturbances in mice, medicalxpress, August 14, 2014.
  • Altering the Intestinal Microbiota during a Critical Developmental Window Has Lasting Metabolic Consequences, cell doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.052, 14 August 2014.

Could Autism be detected in Toddlers through a Sniff Test ?

A Mechanistic Link between Olfaction and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Testing a child’s reaction to smells may provide an effective new way of diagnosing autism at young ages, research has shown. Image by Savannah Lewis.

2015 Study Summary

Internal action models (IAMs) are brain templates for sensory-motor coordination underlying diverse behaviors. An emerging theory suggests that impaired IAMs are a common theme in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, whether impaired IAMs occur across sensory systems and how they relate to the major phenotype of ASD, namely impaired social communication, remains unclear.

Olfaction relies on an IAM known as the sniff response, where sniff magnitude is automatically modulated to account for odor valence. To test the failed IAM theory in olfaction, we precisely measured the non-verbal non-task-dependent sniff response concurrent with pleasant and unpleasant odors in 36 children—18 with ASD and 18 matched typically developing (TD) controls.

We found that whereas TD children generated a typical adult-like sniff response within 305 ms of odor onset, ASD children had a profoundly altered sniff response, sniffing equally regardless of odor valance. This difference persisted despite equal reported odor perception and allowed for 81% correct ASD classification based on the sniff response alone (binomial, p < 0.001). Moreover, increasingly aberrant sniffing was associated with increasingly severe ASD (r = −0.75, p < 0.001), specifically with social (r = −0.72, p < 0.001), but not motor (r < −0.38, p > 0.18), impairment.

These results uncover a novel ASD marker implying a mechanistic link between the underpinnings of olfaction and ASD and directly linking an impaired IAM with impaired social abilities.

Sources and more information
  • A Mechanistic Link between Olfaction and Autism Spectrum Disorder, cell, July 2, 2015.
  • Can autism be measured in a sniff?, medicalxpress, July 2, 2015.

The DES Mouse at Six Months of Age

Environmental Estrogens and Obesity – Molecular Cellular Endocrinology

DES mouse and control
Representative photograph of Control and DES-treated Mice, Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010.
  • A. Photograph shows the difference in body size of the two groups at ~ 6 months of age.
  • B. Images of Control and DES treated mice as generated by Piximus densitometry.

Note that the DES mouse is much larger than the control at 6 months of age.

  • Image sources: Environmental estrogens and obesity, NCBI PMCID: PMC2682588 and figure/F1, 2010 May 25.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Le scandale du prix des médicaments

Une addition salée pour la Sécu…

Un traitement à 25 euros, l’autre à 895, pour une efficacité comparable. Et pourtant, c’est le plus cher qui est approuvé par les autorités sanitaires. L’enquête du magazine “Pièces à conviction“, mercredi 13 novembre sur France 3, à 23h10, se penche sur le scandale du prix des médicaments et révèle qu’en s’attaquant à quelques-uns d’entre eux seulement, l’état pourrait économiser jusqu’à un milliard d’euros…

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Médiator 150 mg, c’est combien de morts?

Quelques mots d’Irène Frachon sur le livre sous-titre censuré…

mediator-150mgr book cover image
Une censure du sous-titre. Une censure du livre. Dont la couverture doit être modifiée sous astreinte de 50 euros par exemplaire distribué…

Le 25 novembre 2009, l’Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des produits de santé – Afssaps – annonce la suspension de l’autorisation de mise sur le marché d’un médicament. Il s’agit du Mediator, commercialisé depuis plus de trente ans par le laboratoire Servier, alors consommé quotidiennement par près de 300 000 Français. Cette décision fait suite à la révélation d’une toxicité grave directement liée au médicament : une atteinte des valves du coeur, aux conséquences parfois mortelles. Les premiers éléments laissant suspecter la possibilité d’une telle toxicité remontent à 1997, date à laquelle un médicament proche et commercialisé par le même laboratoire, le coupe-faim Isoméride, est interdit pour les mêmes raisons. Médecin, j’ai été pendant vingt ans témoin puis acteur de cet épisode dramatique. La transparence est une condition de la qualité de la politique de santé des populations. C’est pourquoi je témoigne dans ce livre de ce que j’ai vécu, de la manière la plus factuelle possible. Mon objectif est de permettre à chacun de comprendre comment sont prises certaines décisions de santé publique en France et de contribuer ainsi au débat public, constitutif de l’exercice de la démocratie“. Irène Frachon.

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