Le Conseil constitutionnel a été saisi le 17 juin 2015 par le Conseil d’État d’une question prioritaire de constitutionnalité, posée par l’association Plastics Europe, relative à la conformité aux droits et libertés que la Constitution garantit de l’article 1er de la loi n° 2010-729 du 30 juin 2010 dans sa rédaction issue de la loi n° 2012-1442 du 24 décembre 2012.
Les dispositions des deux premiers alinéas de cet article prévoient la suspension de la fabrication, de l’importation, de l’exportation et de la mise sur le marché de tout conditionnement, contenant ou ustensile comportant du Bisphenol A et destiné à entrer en contact direct avec des denrées alimentaires. Elles précisent que le Gouvernement, après avis de l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail, peut autoriser la reprise de ces opérations.
L’association requérante soutenait que les dispositions contestées méconnaissent la liberté d’entreprendre.
Le Conseil constitutionnel a en partie accueilli le grief fondé sur la liberté d’entreprendre.
Il a jugé que la suspension de l’importation et de la mise sur le marché national des produits contenant du bisphénol Avisés par la loi porte à la liberté d’entreprendre une atteinte qui n’est pas manifestement disproportionnée au regard de l’objectif de protection de la santé qu’il a poursuivi.
Le Conseil constitutionnel a, en revanche, relevé que la commercialisation des produits en cause est autorisée dans de nombreux pays et qu’ainsi la suspension de la fabrication et de l’exportation de ces produits sur le territoire de la République ou à partir de ce territoire est sans effet sur la commercialisation de ces produits dans les pays étrangers. Le Conseil constitutionnel en a déduit que la suspension de la fabrication et de l’exportation de ces produits en France ou depuis la France apporte à la liberté d’entreprendre des restrictions qui ne sont pas en lien avec l’objectif poursuivi.
Le Conseil constitutionnel a, par suite, censuré uniquement la suspension de la fabrication et de l’exportation des produits comportant du bisphénol A et destinés à entrer en contact direct avec des denrées alimentaires.
En savoir plus:
Bisphénol A dans l’alimentaire : le Conseil constitutionnel censure en partie la loi, usinenouvelle, 17 septembre 2015.
Décision n° 2015-480 QPC du 17 septembre 2015 – Association Plastics Europe [Suspension de la fabrication, de l’importation, de l’exportation et de la mise sur le marché de tout conditionnement à vocation alimentaire contenant du Bisphénol A], Communiqué de presse – 2015-480 QPC, 17 septembre 2015.
Vessey MP, National Center for Biotechnology Information, 1989
1989 Study Abstract
Herbst and his colleagues first showed in 1971 that girls born to mothers who had taken diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy were at an increased risk of clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix. At first it was feared that these girls would have a high probability of developing clear-cell carcinomas, but the latest report from the Registry for Research on Hormonal Transplacental Carcinogenesis of the University of Chicago puts the risk at only 1 per 1000 of those exposed, from birth through to age 34.
On this basis, Herbst and his colleagues have suggested that DES is not a complete carcinogen, but that some other factor is involved in the pathogenesis of clear-cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix.
Women exposed in utero to DES have a high prevalence of vaginal adenosis and tend, therefore, to have an extensive transformation zone on the cervix and in the vagina. There is considerable controversy as to whether or not such women are at increased risk for vaginal and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
The latest findings from the Study of the Incidence and Natural History of Genital Tract Anomalies and Cancer in Offspring Exposed in Utero to Synthetic Estrogens (the DESAD project) are, however, worrying; during follow-up, vaginal and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia occurred at a rate of 15.7/1000 woman-years in the exposed and at a rate of 7.9/1000 woman-years in the controls (p = 0.01).
There is some evidence that exposure in utero to exogenous oestrogens increases the risk of testicular cancer in males. The findings, however, are not conclusive, and the effect does not seem to be specific to DES and related nonsteroidal oestrogens.
Sources and more information
Epidemiological studies of the effects of diethylstilboestrol, IARC Sci Publ. 1989;(96):335-48. NCBI PMID: 2680951.
Fredrick Vom Saal is a Professor of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri
You’ve said that the doses at which hormones affect the body are extremely low. Give me an example to make me understand that.
F Vom Saal: “The issue of the amount of hormone that actually causes effects is very difficult for scientists to talk to people about because we’re dealing with numbers that are outside of the frame of reference that anybody is going to be thinking about. We see changes, profound changes, in the course of development of essentially the whole body of experimental animals, and we’re working with mice and rats, and we see these changes at fifty femtograms of the hormone per milliliter of blood. That’s 0.05 trillionths of a gram of this hormone in a milliliter of blood.”
And what sort of effect does it have?
F Vom Saal: “We see changes in the functioning of the prostate. We see dramatic change in the sprouting of glands within the fetal prostate. We see changes in testicular sperm production. We see changes in the structure of the endocrine control region in the brain, which is accompanied by changes in sex behavior, aggression, the way these animals behave towards infants, their whole social interaction, the way they age, the time that they enter puberty, the age at which they cease reproduction. It changes their entire life history, and these changes are capable of occurring at very low levels of hormones. I remember when we first did this and I was a post doctoral fellow, and my advisor and I looked at the hormone levels and said, “My God, these levels are so staggeringly small and the consequences are so immense it’s amazing.” Even to biologists, it’s amazing.
But what you have is the entire field of toxicology thinking of a millionth of a gram of a hormone or a chemical as being this staggeringly tiny amount, and to most people if I said there’s only a millionth of a gram of it here you’d say, “How can it do anything?” A millionth of a gram of estradiol in blood is toxic. The natural hormone is actually operating at something like a hundred million times lower than that. So when you have a physiologist thinking of a millionth of a gram, you have that physiologist thinking this is a toxic high dose. When you are raised in the field of toxicology you are looking at that from the other perspective of “My gosh, that’s such a tiny dose, it couldn’t do anything.”
So now what we have are two different fields coming into this issue and looking at a dose as either staggeringly high or staggeringly low, and it’s not surprising that there is a clash occurring with regard to dose effects.”
Residential Exposure to Pesticide During Childhood and Childhood Cancers
2015 Study Abstract
There is an increasing concern about chronic low-level pesticide exposure during childhood and its influence on childhood cancers.
In this meta-analysis, we aimed to examine associations between residential childhood pesticide exposures and childhood cancers.
We searched all observational studies published in PubMed before February 2014 and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches.
The literature search yielded 277 studies that met inclusion criteria.
Sixteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. We calculated effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using a random effect model with inverse variance weights.
We found that childhood exposure to indoor but not outdoor residential insecticides was associated with a significant increase in risk of childhood leukemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26–1.72; I2 = 30%) and childhood lymphomas (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.15–1.78; I2 = 0%). A significant increase in risk of leukemia was also associated with herbicide exposure (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10–1.44; I2 = 0%). Also observed was a positive but not statistically significant association between childhood home pesticide or herbicide exposure and childhood brain tumors.
The small number of studies included in the analysis represents a major limitation of the current analysis.
Results from this meta-analysis indicated that children exposed to indoor insecticides would have a higher risk of childhood hematopoietic cancers. Additional research is needed to confirm the association between residential indoor pesticide exposures and childhood cancers. Meanwhile, preventive measures should be considered to reduce children’s exposure to pesticides at home.
Do you have more tips for creating a safer room for babies?
This infographic via chemicalsinthehome opens our mind to the hidden dangers lurking in your baby’s nursery and gives us some useful tips on how to avoid them. Make these steps a habit and start creating a safer and healthier home for your family.
International conference at the University of Roehampton, 2015
CEP is pleased to announce that its upcoming conference More Harm than Good: Confronting the Psychiatric Medication Epidemic will be ‘live streamed’ via YouTube on 18 September. This means that anyone with an Internet connection can watch the conference for free in real time. In addition, each of the talks will be filmed and posted onto the CEP website for later viewing.
There are two streams to view.
The first starts at 9am BST (GMT+1) and will record the morning session here.
The second starts at 2pm BST (GMT+1) and will record the afternoon session here.
Smartphone-sized devices could test your breath for cancer within two years, explained Owlstone Nanotech cofounder and president Billy Boyle, speaking at WIRED Health.Owlstone, a spinout company from the University of Cambridge, was initially set up to develop handheld military sensors able to quickly detect toxic gases and chemicals in the field. It soon realised the software powering its chemical sensor microchip had major potential for the medical diagnostics field.Boyle explained that his company has already shrunk down the chemical-sensing technology of mass spectrometers that typically cost hundreds of thousands of pounds, to a tiny, cost-effective field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip with the potential to detect biomarkers specific to colon, lung cancer and much more.WIRED Health is a one-day summit designed to introduce, explain and predict the coming trends facing the medical and personal healthcare industries. This ambitious inaugural event was held on Tuesday April 29, at the new home of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 30 Euston Square, London..