Histological and ultrastructural changes induced by diethylstilbestrol on renal tissues

The effects of diethylstilbestrol administration on rat kidney

lab-rats image
Diethylstilbestrol administration showed harmful effects on rats renal tissues and altered their morphology with an increased number of apoptotic cells. Lab rats via Tatiana Bulyonkova.

2013 Study Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To assess the histological and ultrastructural changes that can be induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) on renal tissues using histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods.

METHODS:
Thirty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (10 rats each): Group 1 – control; Group 2 – received DES at a dose of 60 ug/kg/day, dissolved in 0.1 ml corn oil for 20 days; and Group 3 – received the same dose of DES for 50 days by oral gavage. The renal tissues were studied histologically, immunohistochemically (using an anti-BCL2-associated X protein [BAX protein] antibody), and ultrastructurally. This study was carried out at the Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2011 and December 2012.

RESULTS:
The DES administration for 50 days caused noticeable degeneration, and alteration of the morphology of the renal tissues in the form of damaged renal tubules with loss of the brush border of the proximal convoluted tubules and increased cellularity of the glomeruli. In addition, there was a significant increase in BAX protein expression based on immunoreactivity, and in renal tubules, as well as glomerular cells. These changes were less obvious after 20 days of treatment.

CONCLUSION:
Non-steroidal, synthetic estrogens showed harmful effects on the renal tissues and altered their morphology with an increased number of apoptotic cells, and these changes were duration dependent.

Sources and more information
  • The effects of diethylstilbestrol administration on rat kidney. Ultrastructural study, Saudi Med J. 2013 Nov;34(11):1114-24.. NCBI PMID: 24252888.
    Full study: scribd, doc/280424627.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Should genetically modified human embryos be allowed?

Are genetically modified embryos “essential” for science?

2000
It is “essential” that the genetic modification of human embryos is allowed, says a group of scientists, ethicists and policy experts. But critics say once the technology is allowed for research purposes, it is inevitable it will end up creating a market for enhanced, genetically modified babies.

Research involving genetic modification of human embryos, though controversial, is essential to gain basic understanding of the biology of early embryos and should be permitted, an international group of experts said.

The statement was issued by members of the so-called Hinxton Group, a global network of stem cell researchers, bioethicists and policy experts who met in the UK last week.

But critics say once the technology is allowed for research purposes, it is inevitable it will end up creating a market for enhanced, genetically modified babies.

Sources and more information
  • Statement on Genome Editing Technologies and Human Germline Genetic Modificationhinxtongroup, September 3-4, 2015.
  • Genetically modified human embryos should be allowed, expert group says, theguardian, 10 September 2015.
  • Genetically modified embryos “essential” for science, in-cyprus, 10/09/2015.
  • ‘Genetic modification of embryos is essential’: Report claims editing genomes holds huge potential and shouldn’t be feared, DailyMail, 10 September 2015.

The Full Corn Moon 18th #FullMoonEngageMe #SocialMedia Event on #EmpireKred #SocialNetworking

September 26, 2015, join our free social media event taking place at each Full Moon.

Full-corn-moon image
Between Saturday the 26th and Wednesday the 30th of August 2015, join our free social media event taking place at each Full Moon – via #EmpireKred – and give a boost to your social networking! lindenbaum

The Full Corn Moon

September’s Corn Moon refers to the time of year after the autumn equinox when crops were gathered by Native Americans. Corn, pumpkins, squash, beans, and wild rice are the chief Native American staples that were ready for gathering. September’s most familiar moon name however is harvest moon, referring to this full moon’s particularly bright appearance and early rise, which lets farmers continue harvesting into the night.

18th #FullMoonEngageMe Schedule

Our free event will start on Saturday the 26th of September 2015 at +/- 07:00 UTC and will last until Wednesday the 30th at +/- 24:00 in HERE.

Anything special or different in this 18th edition?

Yes! Since last month, Empire Avenue became Empire.Kred including new domain and new look. If two years ago I said that we all had kred somewhere, Kred now says that the score was just the tip of the iceberg

I am new with this, what is this about?

Our 1st #FullMoonEngageMe event launched in May 2014… Grab a unique opportunity to super charge your social networking by meeting and connecting with top social media engagers on #EmpireKred and beyond. Time for some “serious buzz” and serious FUN!

Confused?

See you soon 😉

California’s Environmental Protection Agency to Put Four Pesticides on Cancer List

Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate

Glyphosate-spraying image
Monsanto developed the herbicide glyphosate in the 1970s and currently sells the weed killer under the trade name Roundup. However, the company’s patent on the chemical has long since expired, and it is now widely used in numerous products produced by dozens of pesticide companies, including Dow AgroSciences, Syngenta, Bayer CropScience and many others.

California’s impending decision to place on its list of carcinogenic chemicals four widely used pesticides — TETRACHLORVINPHOS, PARATHION, MALATHION and GLYPHOSATE, the most widely used pesticide in the country – has uncertain ramifications for the state’s agriculture industry.

If California’s Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) places the four pesticides on its list, any knowing discharges of the chemicals into drinking water would become illegal.
Also, farmers, pest control companies and any other businesses that want to use the pesticides would first have to provide “clear and reasonable warnings” to the public, according to state law.

Continue reading California to Put Four Pesticides on Cancer List on Bloomberg,
The Bureau of National Affair, Sept. 8 2015.

More Information
  • NOTICE OF INTENT TO LIST CHEMICALS BY THE LABOR CODE MECHANISM: TETRACHLORVINPHOS, PARATHION, MALATHION, GLYPHOSATE, oehha, Proposition 65, Sept. 4 2015.
  • Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate, thelancet, Volume 16, No. 5, p490–491, May 2015.

Vaginal and cervical cancer due to diethylstilbestrol DES; end epidemic?

The current situation regarding the epidemic of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and the uterine cervix in the DES-exposed population

CCAC painting
Since 2000, the incidence of CCAC of the vagina and cervix has decreased markedly compared to the situation in the 1980s and 1990 s. In particular, the number of patients with CCAC exposed in utero to DES has decreased.

2009 Study Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the current situation regarding the epidemic of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and the uterine cervix (CCAC) in relation to the exposure in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES).

DESIGN:
Descriptive.

METHODS:
Patients with CCAC of the uterine cervix or vagina born after 1946 and diagnosed in the period 1969-2005, were identified through the Nationwide network and registry of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands and from 2003 onwards through the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Exposure data and clinical data were obtained by means of questionnaires and medical records. The histology slides of tumours were reviewed. For the patients who did not provide consent, only the date of diagnosis and age at diagnosis were known (n = 10).

RESULTS:
Up to 2005, 144 CCAC patients were registered. Age at diagnosis varied from 8-54 years (mean: 28 years). In the years 1981-2000, the number of new diagnoses in 4 successive 5-year periods was fairly stable (n=26-30) but it was considerably lower in 2001-2005 (n=13). Of the patients whose history of intrauterine exposure to DES was known, 62% had been exposed (76/122). The mean age at diagnosis was 24 years for exposed patients compared to 32 years for non-exposed patients. The 10-year survival rate was 78% (95% CI: 68-87) for exposed and 69% (95% CI: 56-82) for non-exposed patients.

CONCLUSION:
Since 2000, the incidence of CCAC of the vagina and cervix has decreased markedly compared to the situation in the 1980s and 1990 s. In particular, the number of patients with CCAC exposed in utero to DES has decreased. Whether this decrease shall continue over the coming years remains to be seen.

Sources and more information
  • Vaginal and cervical cancer due to diethylstilbestrol (DES); end epidemic, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2009;153:A366. NCBI PMID: 19857300.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Could Cancer decoy attract and capture malignant cells?

In vivo capture and label-free detection of early metastatic cells

cancer-decoy
A small, implantable device that researchers are calling a cancer “super-attractor” could eventually give doctors earlier warnings of relapse in breast cancer patients and even slow the disease’s spread to other organs. Conceptual illustration of implantable sponge-like device attracts cancer cells from the bloodstream.

2015 Study abstract

Breast cancer is a leading cause of death for women, with mortality resulting from metastasis. Metastases are often detected once tumour cells affect the function of solid organs, with a high disease burden limiting effective treatment. Here we report a method for the early detection of metastasis using an implanted scaffold to recruit and capture metastatic cells in vivo, which achieves high cell densities and reduces the tumour burden within solid organs 10-fold. Recruitment is associated with infiltration of immune cells, which include Gr1hiCD11b+ cells. We identify metastatic cells in the scaffold through a label-free detection system using inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, which identifies changes to nanoscale tissue architecture associated with the presence of tumour cells. For patients at risk of recurrence, scaffold implantation following completion of primary therapy has the potential to identify metastatic disease at the earliest stage, enabling initiation of therapy while the disease burden is low.

Sources and more information

15% of U.S. girls now believed to be experiencing precocious puberty

How Girls Are Developing Earlier In An Age Of ‘New Puberty’

precocious-puberty girl image
Puberty is changing for a segment of American girls, who may be nowhere near emotionally ready for bras, feminine hygiene products, or Spin the Bottle. And, it goes without saying, neither are their parents. That’s because these girls are as young as 7 and in second grade. Summer ! by Paul Falardeau.

In the past, only 5% of U.S. girls were believed to be experiencing precocious puberty, defined as the onset of breast and hair development in girls age 7 or younger. Their research indicates the figure is now closer to 15%, with a 27% showing breast development by age 8. Similarly, public hair is now appearing in 19% of American girls by age 8.

No one is exactly sure why precocious puberty in girls is on the rise. Higher obesity rates may be partially to blame. Exposure to estrogen and hormone-mimicking chemicals in plastics may also trigger early-onset development in girls. The use of antibiotics in animals in the food supply is also suspect. And race and genetics may play a factor, too... ”

Read Is Your Daughter Going Through Early Puberty? Here’s What To Do, scarymommy.

Related: How Girls Are Developing Earlier In An Age Of ‘New Puberty’,
npr, DECEMBER 02, 2014.

Sluggish cognitive tempo: the ADHD-like new attention disorder…

Idea of New Attention Disorder Spurs Research, and Debate

Sluggish-cognitive-tempo
Sluggish cognitive tempo: the ADHD-like new disorder that explains daydreaming?

Keith McBurnett, a professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, and co-author of several papers on sluggish cognitive tempo, says:
When you start talking about things like daydreaming, mind-wandering, those types of behaviors, someone who has a son or daughter who does this excessively says, ‘I know about this from my own experience.’ They know what you’re talking about. ”

Yet some experts, including Dr. McBurnett and some members of the journal’s editorial board, say that there is no consensus on the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) new disorder’s specific symptoms, let alone scientific validity. They warn that the concept’s promotion without vastly more scientific rigor could expose children to unwarranted diagnoses and prescription medications — problems that A.D.H.D. already faces.

Dr. Allen Frances, an emeritus professor of psychiatry at Duke University, says:
“ We’re seeing a fad in evolution: Just as A.D.H.D. has been the diagnosis du jour for 15 years or so, this is the beginning of another. This is a public health experiment on millions of kids.”

Sources and more information

  • Idea of New Attention Disorder Spurs Research, and Debate, nytimes, APRIL 11, 2014.
  • Sluggish cognitive tempo: the ADHD-like disorder that explains daydreaming?, theguardian, 15 April 2014.
  • Talk:Sluggish cognitive tempo, wikipedia.

Legislation not protecting ecosystems, EPA not regulating human pharma­ceuticals in drinking water

Drugging the Environment…

image of water-of-life
Humans have spiked ecosystems with a flood of active pharmaceuticals. The drugs are feminizing male fish, confusing birds, and worrying scientists. Water or Life by Sumit Kumar Pandit.

Klaus Kümmerer, Director of the Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Lüneburg, says:
Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous in wastewater, deposited primarily from human urine and feces. The active ingredients from leftover pills thrown in patients’ trash or even hospital waste also find their way to waterways, but the contribution of those sources pales in comparison to the share “from all of us,”

Rebecca Klaper, Professor, School of Freshwater Sciences, says:
” Sewage treatment plants remove some pharmaceuticals from water during basic filtering processes, but many pass through unhindered. Metformin, for example, is stable against common water treatments such as UV light irradiation. And at this point, it is prohibitively expensive to add technologies that can filter out these chemicals. “

Kathryn Arnold, an ecologist at the University of York in the U.K., where there are also no regulations for pharmaceuticals in water, says:
” From sewage plants and landfills, drugs make their way into streams, rivers, lakes, seawater, and even into drinking water. Currently, however, the EPA does not regulate even a single human pharmaceutical in drinking water. An EPA list of pollutants that may make water unsafe, but are not regulated, includes eight hormones and one antibiotic. Metformin is not on the list. Legislation is not protecting ecosystems at the moment.  ”

Read Drugging the Environment, The Scientist, articleNo/43615, August 1, 2015.

The Riddle of Gender: Science, Activism, and Transgender Rights

What it means to be a man, a woman, and a human being

The_Riddle_of_Gender_cover_
What it means to be a man, a woman, and a human being..

How do nature and nurture interact to produce a persistent awareness of one’s identity as male or as female?
How does understanding the psychology of transgendered people illuminate gender psychology?

When Deborah Rudacille learned that a close friend had decided to transition from female to male, she felt compelled to understand why.

Coming at the controversial subject of transsexualism from several angles–historical, sociological, psychological, medical–Rudacille discovered that gender variance is anything but new, that changing one’s gender has been met with both acceptance and hostility through the years, and that gender identity, like sexual orientation, appears to be inborn, not learned, though in some people the sex of the body does not match the sex of the brain.

Informed not only by meticulous research, but also by the author’s interviews with prominent members of the transgender community, The Riddle of Gender is a sympathetic and wise look at a sexual revolution that calls into question many of our most deeply held assumptions about what it means to be a man, a woman, and a human being.

More information

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources