The effects of diethylstilbestrol administration on rat kidney
2013 Study Abstract
To assess the histological and ultrastructural changes that can be induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) on renal tissues using histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods.
Thirty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (10 rats each): Group 1 – control; Group 2 – received DES at a dose of 60 ug/kg/day, dissolved in 0.1 ml corn oil for 20 days; and Group 3 – received the same dose of DES for 50 days by oral gavage. The renal tissues were studied histologically, immunohistochemically (using an anti-BCL2-associated X protein [BAX protein] antibody), and ultrastructurally. This study was carried out at the Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2011 and December 2012.
The DES administration for 50 days caused noticeable degeneration, and alteration of the morphology of the renal tissues in the form of damaged renal tubules with loss of the brush border of the proximal convoluted tubules and increased cellularity of the glomeruli. In addition, there was a significant increase in BAX protein expression based on immunoreactivity, and in renal tubules, as well as glomerular cells. These changes were less obvious after 20 days of treatment.
Non-steroidal, synthetic estrogens showed harmful effects on the renal tissues and altered their morphology with an increased number of apoptotic cells, and these changes were duration dependent.
Sources and more information
The effects of diethylstilbestrol administration on rat kidney. Ultrastructural study, Saudi Med J. 2013 Nov;34(11):1114-24.. NCBI PMID: 24252888.
Full study: scribd, doc/280424627.
Are genetically modified embryos “essential” for science?
Research involving genetic modification of human embryos, though controversial, is essential to gain basic understanding of the biology of early embryos and should be permitted, an international group of experts said.
The statement was issued by members of the so-called Hinxton Group, a global network of stem cell researchers, bioethicists and policy experts who met in the UK last week.
But critics say once the technology is allowed for research purposes, it is inevitable it will end up creating a market for enhanced, genetically modified babies.
Sources and more information
Statement on Genome Editing Technologies and Human Germline Genetic Modification, hinxtongroup, September 3-4, 2015.
Genetically modified human embryos should be allowed, expert group says, theguardian, 10 September 2015.
Genetically modified embryos “essential” for science, in-cyprus, 10/09/2015.
‘Genetic modification of embryos is essential’: Report claims editing genomes holds huge potential and shouldn’t be feared, DailyMail, 10 September 2015.
September 26, 2015, join our free social media event taking place at each Full Moon.
The Full Corn Moon
September’s Corn Moon refers to the time of year after the autumn equinox when crops were gathered by Native Americans. Corn, pumpkins, squash, beans, and wild rice are the chief Native American staples that were ready for gathering. September’s most familiar moon name however is harvest moon, referring to this full moon’s particularly bright appearance and early rise, which lets farmers continue harvesting into the night.
18th #FullMoonEngageMe Schedule
Our free event will start on Saturday the 26th of September 2015 at +/- 07:00 UTC and will last until Wednesday the 30th at +/- 24:00 in HERE.
Anything special or different in this 18th edition?
Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate
California’s impending decision to place on its list of carcinogenic chemicals four widely used pesticides — TETRACHLORVINPHOS, PARATHION, MALATHION and GLYPHOSATE, the most widely used pesticide in the country – has uncertain ramifications for the state’s agriculture industry.
If California’s Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) places the four pesticides on its list, any knowing discharges of the chemicals into drinking water would become illegal.
Also, farmers, pest control companies and any other businesses that want to use the pesticides would first have to provide “clear and reasonable warnings” to the public, according to state law.
Continue reading California to Put Four Pesticides on Cancer List on Bloomberg,
The Bureau of National Affair, Sept. 8 2015.
NOTICE OF INTENT TO LIST CHEMICALS BY THE LABOR CODE MECHANISM: TETRACHLORVINPHOS, PARATHION, MALATHION, GLYPHOSATE, oehha, Proposition 65, Sept. 4 2015.
Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate, thelancet, Volume 16, No. 5, p490–491, May 2015.
Patients with CCAC of the uterine cervix or vagina born after 1946 and diagnosed in the period 1969-2005, were identified through the Nationwide network and registry of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands and from 2003 onwards through the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Exposure data and clinical data were obtained by means of questionnaires and medical records. The histology slides of tumours were reviewed. For the patients who did not provide consent, only the date of diagnosis and age at diagnosis were known (n = 10).
Up to 2005, 144 CCAC patients were registered. Age at diagnosis varied from 8-54 years (mean: 28 years). In the years 1981-2000, the number of new diagnoses in 4 successive 5-year periods was fairly stable (n=26-30) but it was considerably lower in 2001-2005 (n=13). Of the patients whose history of intrauterine exposure to DES was known, 62% had been exposed (76/122). The mean age at diagnosis was 24 years for exposed patients compared to 32 years for non-exposed patients. The 10-year survival rate was 78% (95% CI: 68-87) for exposed and 69% (95% CI: 56-82) for non-exposed patients.
Since 2000, the incidence of CCAC of the vagina and cervix has decreased markedly compared to the situation in the 1980s and 1990 s. In particular, the number of patients with CCAC exposed in utero to DES has decreased. Whether this decrease shall continue over the coming years remains to be seen.
Sources and more information
Vaginal and cervical cancer due to diethylstilbestrol (DES); end epidemic, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2009;153:A366. NCBI PMID: 19857300.
In vivo capture and label-free detection of early metastatic cells
2015 Study abstract
Breast cancer is a leading cause of death for women, with mortality resulting from metastasis. Metastases are often detected once tumour cells affect the function of solid organs, with a high disease burden limiting effective treatment. Here we report a method for the early detection of metastasis using an implanted scaffold to recruit and capture metastatic cells in vivo, which achieves high cell densities and reduces the tumour burden within solid organs 10-fold. Recruitment is associated with infiltration of immune cells, which include Gr1hiCD11b+ cells. We identify metastatic cells in the scaffold through a label-free detection system using inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, which identifies changes to nanoscale tissue architecture associated with the presence of tumour cells. For patients at risk of recurrence, scaffold implantation following completion of primary therapy has the potential to identify metastatic disease at the earliest stage, enabling initiation of therapy while the disease burden is low.
Sources and more information
In vivo capture and label-free detection of early metastatic cells, nature, doi:10.1038/ncomms9094, 08 September 2015.
Implant ‘traps’ spreading cancer cells, BBC News health-34191325, 9 September 2015.
How Girls Are Developing Earlier In An Age Of ‘New Puberty’
“ In the past, only 5% of U.S. girls were believed to be experiencing precocious puberty, defined as the onset of breast and hair development in girls age 7 or younger. Their research indicates the figure is now closer to 15%, with a 27% showing breast development by age 8. Similarly, public hair is now appearing in 19% of American girls by age 8.
Idea of New Attention Disorder Spurs Research, and Debate
Keith McBurnett, a professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, and co-author of several papers on sluggish cognitive tempo, says:
“ When you start talking about things like daydreaming, mind-wandering, those types of behaviors, someone who has a son or daughter who does this excessively says, ‘I know about this from my own experience.’ They know what you’re talking about. ”
Yet some experts, including Dr. McBurnett and some members of the journal’s editorial board, say that there is no consensus on the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) new disorder’s specific symptoms, let alone scientific validity. They warn that the concept’s promotion without vastly more scientific rigor could expose children to unwarranted diagnoses and prescription medications — problems that A.D.H.D. already faces.
Dr. Allen Frances, an emeritus professor of psychiatry at Duke University, says:
“ We’re seeing a fad in evolution: Just as A.D.H.D. has been the diagnosis du jour for 15 years or so, this is the beginning of another. This is a public health experiment on millions of kids.”
Sources and more information
Idea of New Attention Disorder Spurs Research, and Debate, nytimes, APRIL 11, 2014.
Sluggish cognitive tempo: the ADHD-like disorder that explains daydreaming?, theguardian, 15 April 2014.
Klaus Kümmerer, Director of the Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Lüneburg, says:
” Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous in wastewater, deposited primarily from human urine and feces. The active ingredients from leftover pills thrown in patients’ trash or even hospital waste also find their way to waterways, but the contribution of those sources pales in comparison to the share “from all of us,”
Rebecca Klaper, Professor, School of Freshwater Sciences, says:
” Sewage treatment plants remove some pharmaceuticals from water during basic filtering processes, but many pass through unhindered. Metformin, for example, is stable against common water treatments such as UV light irradiation. And at this point, it is prohibitively expensive to add technologies that can filter out these chemicals. “
Kathryn Arnold, an ecologist at the University of York in the U.K., where there are also no regulations for pharmaceuticals in water, says: ” From sewage plants and landfills, drugs make their way into streams, rivers, lakes, seawater, and even into drinking water. Currently, however, the EPA does not regulate even a single human pharmaceutical in drinking water. An EPA list of pollutants that may make water unsafe, but are not regulated, includes eight hormones and one antibiotic. Metformin is not on the list. Legislation is not protecting ecosystems at the moment. ”
Read Drugging the Environment, The Scientist, articleNo/43615, August 1, 2015.
What it means to be a man, a woman, and a human being
How do nature and nurture interact to produce a persistent awareness of one’s identity as male or as female? How does understanding the psychology of transgendered people illuminate gender psychology?
When Deborah Rudacille learned that a close friend had decided to transition from female to male, she felt compelled to understand why.
Coming at the controversial subject of transsexualism from several angles–historical, sociological, psychological, medical–Rudacille discovered that gender variance is anything but new, that changing one’s gender has been met with both acceptance and hostility through the years, and that gender identity, like sexual orientation, appears to be inborn, not learned, though in some people the sex of the body does not match the sex of the brain.
Informed not only by meticulous research, but also by the author’s interviews with prominent members of the transgender community, The Riddle of Gender is a sympathetic and wise look at a sexual revolution that calls into question many of our most deeply held assumptions about what it means to be a man, a woman, and a human being.