Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: an Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

EDCs, The Endocrine Society, 2009

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In 2009, The Endocrine Society made a number of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clinical research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness.

There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control or reproduction.

In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society , we present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology.

Results from animal models, human clinical observations, and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health. The mechanisms of EDCs involve divergent pathways including (but not limited to) estrogenic, antiandrogenic, thyroid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, retinoid, and actions through other nuclear receptors; steroidogenic enzymes; neurotransmitter receptors and systems; and many other pathways that are highly conserved in wildlife and humans, and which can be modeled in laboratory in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, EDCs represent a broad class of molecules such as organochlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals, plastics and plasticizers, fuels, and many other chemicals that are present in the environment or are in widespread use.

We make a number of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clinical research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness.

Accepted: April 17, 2009 – First Published Online: July 01, 2013.

Sources and more information
  • Flickr album DES and EDCs Research.
  • EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, DOI: 10.1210/er.2015-1010, November 06, 2015.
  • Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, DOI: 10.1210/er.2015-1093, September 28, 2015.
  • Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement, NCBI PMCID: PMC2726844, doi: 10.1210/er.2009-0002, June 2009.

Do drug prices really reflect the value they provide?

A Prescription for Sticker Shock Caused by Drug Costs

Most companies maintain that drug prices should be be based on research, development and production costs, but Dr. Neumann and Dr. Cohen suggested that drug prices should reflect the value they provide, considering such factors as health benefits and cost-effectiveness.

2015 Paper Abstract

Escalating drug prices have alarmed physicians and the American public and led to calls for government price controls. Less visibly, they have also spawned a flurry of private-sector initiatives designed to help physicians, payers, and patients understand the value of new therapies and thus make better choices about their use. Programs recently introduced or advanced by nonprofit organizations, including leading medical professional societies, represent an important innovation in the United States, but they have also revealed numerous analytic and implementation challenges.

Sources and more information
  • Measuring the Value of Prescription Drugs, The New England Journal of Medicine, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1512009, November 25, 2015.
  • A Prescription for Sticker Shock Caused by Drug Costs, New-York Times, NOVEMBER 23, 2015.

Children are the guardians of our genome

Genes and the wider environment are inextricably intertwined, each affecting the other

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Research shows how the environment our parents and grandparents grew up in influences our health. To improve the wellbeing of future generations policymakers must prioritise children today, says Layla Jader.

Evidence has been mounting about the importance of interactions between people’s genetics and their environment, especially in pregnancy and childhood. Knowledge about how wider environmental factors can turn genes on and off—the new science of environmental epigenomics—is gaining wider coverage and influence. Research has shown that genes and the wider environment are inextricably intertwined, each affecting the other. These gene markers can be passed on to future generations in mammals, and they can also be reversed.

Continue reading Children are the guardians of our genome,
thebmj, 2015;351:h6265, 23 November 2015.

Read DES studies on epigenetics and transgenerational effects.

The Ringing in My Ears…

ALL Prescription Drugs have (benefits AND) side effects

The-ringing-in-my-ears cartoon
Old Health Cartoon that appeared over 30 years ago in Nutrition Health Review magazine.
Health cartoons
Related posts

The Full Frost Moon 20th FullMoonEngageMe Social Media Event on EmpireKred

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Between Wednesday the 25th and Sunday the 29th of November 2015, join our free social media event taking place at each Full Moon – via #EmpireKred – and give a boost to your social networking!Full moon and frost.

November Full Moon

The full moon that appears in November is usually called the Beavers Moon, stemming from when traps were set for beavers who are busily preparing for winter. Traps are set before swamps freeze. November full moon is also referred to as the Full Frost Moon as, by this time of year, there has been a hard frost.

20th #FullMoonEngageMe Schedule

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Join us to “get bought”, connect, super charge your social networking!

Our free event will start on Wednesday the 25th of November 2015 at +/- 07:00 UTC and will last until Sunday the 29th at +/- 24:00 in HERE.

More Information

Our first #FullMoonEngageMe event launched in May 2014 ; it’s about networking and having fun. By meeting and connecting with top social media engagers, you may grab a unique opportunity to super charge your social networking – on #EmpireKred and beyond.

You must know that Empire Avenue became Empire.Kred including a new domain and new look. Two years ago I said that we all had kred somewhere, and now Kred says that the score was just the tip of the iceberg

The Full Pink Moon saw some extravaganza – such as special achievements, moon pies, and daily drawings… so let’s see what happens this time! Recent joiners can expect to receive some extra support during the five days.

If you are confused, please read our FAQs page. And is you are not familiar with the platform – yet – you can join for FREE Empire.Kred at anytime – before and after any social media event.  Use the comment section to ask any question about the event.

Time for some “serious buzz” and serious FUN!
See you soon 😉

New form of antibiotic resistance may already be spreading across borders

Apocalypse Pig: The Last Antibiotic Begins to Fail

image of pigs
On Thursday, researchers from several Chinese, British and US universities announced in the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases that they have identified a new form of resistance, to the very last-ditch drug colistin—and that it is present in both meat animals and people, probably comes from agricultural use of that drug, can move easily among bacteria, and may already be spreading across borders. This is very bad news. CAFNR.

2015 Study abstract

Background
Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing colistin resistance that could be transferred to another strain, was isolated from a pig, we conducted further analysis of possible plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. Herein, we report the emergence of the first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, in Enterobacteriaceae.

Methods
The mcr-1 gene in E coli strain SHP45 was identified by whole plasmid sequencing and subcloning. MCR-1 mechanistic studies were done with sequence comparisons, homology modelling, and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The prevalence of mcr-1 was investigated in E coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from five provinces between April, 2011, and November, 2014. The ability of MCR-1 to confer polymyxin resistance in vivo was examined in a murine thigh model.

Findings
Polymyxin resistance was shown to be singularly due to the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene. The plasmid carrying mcr-1 was mobilised to an E coli recipient at a frequency of 10−1 to 10−3 cells per recipient cell by conjugation, and maintained in K pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In an in-vivo model, production of MCR-1 negated the efficacy of colistin. MCR-1 is a member of the phosphoethanolamine transferase enzyme family, with expression in E coli resulting in the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A. We observed mcr-1 carriage in E coli isolates collected from 78 (15%) of 523 samples of raw meat and 166 (21%) of 804 animals during 2011–14, and 16 (1%) of 1322 samples from inpatients with infection.

Interpretation
The emergence of MCR-1 heralds the breach of the last group of antibiotics, polymyxins, by plasmid-mediated resistance. Although currently confined to China, MCR-1 is likely to emulate other global resistance mechanisms such as NDM-1. Our findings emphasise the urgent need for coordinated global action in the fight against pan-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

Sources and more information
  • Apocalypse Pig: The Last Antibiotic Begins to Fail,
    phenomena.nationalgeographic, 11/21/2015.
  • Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study, sciencedirect, 19 November 2015.
  • Colistin resistance: a major breach in our last line of defence,
    sciencedirect, 19 November 2015.

Choose wisely when it comes to taking more screening tests

Do More Screening Tests Lead to Better Health?

Choosing Wisely Canada is a campaign to help physicians and patients engage in conversations about unnecessary tests, treatments and procedures.

More info and videos

Risks to babies and mothers associated with everyday exposure to toxic chemicals

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals

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Two European health and environment groups strongly welcome the statement released by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) addressing the risks to babies and mothers associated with everyday exposure to toxic chemicals.

Abstract

Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are disproportionately borne by people with low incomes. Discrimination, other social factors, economic factors, and occupation impact risk of exposure and harm. Documented links between prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals and adverse health outcomes span the life course and include impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer. The global health and economic burden related to toxic environmental chemicals is in excess of millions of deaths and billions of dollars every year. On the basis of accumulating robust evidence of exposures and adverse health impacts related to toxic environmental chemicals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) joins other leading reproductive health professional societies in calling for timely action to prevent harm. FIGO recommends that reproductive and other health professionals advocate for policies to prevent exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, work to ensure a healthy food system for all, make environmental health part of health care, and champion environmental justice.

Sources and more information
  • Contaminating Our Bodies With Everyday Products, nytimes, NOV. 28, 2015.
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, sciencedirect, doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.09.002, 1 October 2015.
  • Global Obstetrics and Gynaecology group warn of harm to babies from toxic chemicals in consumer products, HEAL, 1 October 2015.

Effects of Low-Dose Diethylstilbestrol Exposure on DNA Methylation in Mouse Spermatocytes

Epigenetic modification might be a potential mechanism of low-dose DES-induced male reproductive toxicity

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These 2015 study results showed that low-dose DES was toxic to spermatocytes and that DNMT expression and DNA methylation were altered in DES-exposed cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DNA methylation likely plays an important role in mediating DES-induced spermatocyte toxicity in vitro. Flickr.

2015 Study Abstract

Evidence from previous studies suggests that the male reproductive system can be disrupted by fetal or neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). However, the molecular basis for this effect remains unclear. To evaluate the effects of DES on mouse spermatocytes and to explore its potential mechanism of action, the levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and DNA methylation induced by DES were detected.

The results showed that low doses of DES inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in GC-2 cells, an immortalized mouse pachytene spermatocyte-derived cell line, which reproduces primary cells responses to E2. Furthermore, global DNA methylation levels were increased and the expression levels of DNMTs were altered in DES-treated GC-2 cells. A total of 141 differentially methylated DNA sites were detected by microarray analysis. Rxra, an important component of the retinoic acid signaling pathway, and mybph, a RhoA pathway-related protein, were found to be hypermethylated, and Prkcd, an apoptosis-related protein, was hypomethylated.

Effects of Low-Dose Diethylstilbestrol Exposure on DNA Methylation in Mouse Spermatocytes, BCBI PubMed PMID: 26588706, PLOS one PMC4654501, Nov 20 2015.

These results showed that low-dose DES was toxic to spermatocytes and that DNMT expression and DNA methylation were altered in DES-exposed cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DNA methylation likely plays an important role in mediating DES-induced spermatocyte toxicity in vitro.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

DES (Diethylstilbestrol) Resource Guide 2003

View or download the 2003 print version of CDC’s DES Update for you, your family, and your health care provider

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Click image above to download PDF (2.5 MB).

CDC’s DES Update, 2003

Here you can view or download the print version of CDC’s DES Update for you, your family, and your health care provider.

This includes the DES Self-Assessment Guide.

All downloads are available in the Adobe® Portable Document Format (PDF). You will need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader plug-in to view and print these files.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources