For many years, researchers and public health specialists have been assessing the human health impact of prenatal exposure to the estrogenic anti-miscarriage drug, diethylstilbestrol (commonly known as DES or “stilbestrol”). The scope of adverse effects in females exposed to DES (often called “DES daughters“) has been more substantially documented than the effects in males (“DES sons“).
This paper contributes three areas of important research on DES exposure in males:
- an overview of published literature discussing the confirmed and suspected adverse effects of prenatal exposure in DES sons;
- preliminary results from a 5-year online study of DES sons involving 500 individuals with confirmed (60% of sample) and suspected prenatal DES exposure;
- documentation of the presence of gender identity disorders and male-to-female transsexualism reported by more than 100 participants in the study.
Sources and related posts
- PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLSTILBESTROL (DES) IN MALES AND GENDER-RELATED DISORDERS: RESULTS FROM A 5-YEAR STUDY,
- A quantitative investigation of gonadal feminization by diethylstilboestrol of genetically male embryos of the quail Coturnix coturnix japonica – 1995
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ERα alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle – 2014
- Estrogen Receptor-α Mediates Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Feminization of theSeminal Vesicle in Male Mice – 2012
- Female Gene Expression in the Seminal Vesicle of Mice after Prenatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol – 1989
- Feminization of the quail by early diethylstilbestrol treatment: histoenzymological investigations on steroid dehydrogenases in the gonads – 1979
- Molecular feminization of mouse seminal vesicle by prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol: altered expression of messenger RNA – 1994
- Quantitative investigation of gonadal feminization by diethylstilboestrol of genetically male embryos of the quail Coturnix coturnix japonica – 1995
- Sexual orientation after prenatal exposure to exogenous estrogen – 1985
- Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders – 2011
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources
- DES studies on cancers and screening.
- DES studies on epigenetics and transgenerational effects.
- DES studies on fertility and pregnancy.
- DES studies on gender identity and psychological health.
- DES studies on in-utero exposure to DES and side-effects.
- DES studies on the genital tract.
- Papers on DES lawsuits.
- DES videos and posts tagged DES, the DES-exposed, DES victims.