Less than Half of Girls get the HPV Vaccine in the U.S.: 2014 CDC Data

Very few kids are getting vaccinated for HPV in the United States…

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2014, cdc, July 31, 2015.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of 2014, only 40 percent of girls ages 13 to 17 had completed the three-vaccine course of HPV immunization. This is well below the 80 percent goal set in 2010 by the federal government in its Healthy People 2020 report.

Why Are So Few Kids Getting the HPV Vaccine?, pewtrusts, April 07, 2016.

Despite media marketing – claiming it might save lives since it is targeting cervical cancer – and medical efforts to raise vaccination rates, public health officials say that for a variety of reasons, parents and doctors have not embraced the HPV vaccine.

Some states have much lower rates ; in Tennessee, for example, the vaccination rate for girls was 20 percent. The higher rate reported is North Carolina with 54%.

” The HPV vaccine is extremely controversial. There are hundreds of reports of injury and even death from this vaccine. This vaccine has never been proven safe or effective. The trials for it never ran long enough to prove that it actually works. The other problem is it only supposedly protects you from 2 of the 6 viruses that can cause HPV. “

Read the comments left here and our posts tagged Gardasil

Drug-resistant bacteria found in streams and small rivers near wastewater discharges

Wastewater treatment plant discharges can promote the development of antibiotic resistance in streams

Antibiotics are a cornerstone of modern medicine and have saved millions of lives. However, their extensive use has led to the development of widespread resistance, rendering them ineffective against some infections. Microorganisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics are increasingly being found, leading the World Health Organization to declare antibiotic resistance a ‘major threat to public health’. Already, approximately 25 000 European citizens die every year from infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

Wastewater treatment plant discharges can promote the development of antibiotic resistance in streams, Science for Environment Policy News Alert, 08 April 2016.

Although some bacteria are intrinsically resistant to antibiotics, and resistant strains evolve naturally, the overuse of antibiotics accelerates this process. Drug-resistant bacteria can pass on resistance to other bacteria, via a process called ‘horizontal gene transfer’, which is thought to be the major cause of the spread of resistance among bacteria.

While the clinical side of this problem has been studied extensively, there is a less-studied environmental aspect. Antibiotics are not fully metabolised by animals (including humans), which means that residues can enter the aquatic environment via wastewater discharges. Recent studies have shown that concentrations of antibiotics found in aquatic environments could aid selection of resistant bacteria. Inputs from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can also include antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes.

Occurrence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in river biofilms after wastewater inputs in small rivers, ScienceDirect, Environmental Pollution, Volume 210, March 2016, Pages 121–128.

This study is one of very few to assess antibiotic resistance in river biofilms: the layer of slime composed of microbial organisms that is found on rocks, plants and other surfaces in rivers. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can integrate into these biofilms, which may provide an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material, including genes encoding resistance to antibiotics.

The researchers, who were part-funded by the European Regional Development Fund, evaluated the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the Tordera River Basin in northern Spain, which receives input from domestic WWTPs. They looked for genes conferring resistance to major families of antibiotics in biofilm samples collected upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge points in four streams.

The monitored genes confer resistance to antibiotics commonly used in hospitals and communities (such as fluoroquinolones, macrolides and sulfonamides). Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of these genes in water samples collected from Mediterranean rivers.

WWTPs are necessary to minimise, inter alia, organic pollution from wastewater generated by human settlements, which would otherwise affect water bodies and the wider environment. Despite the overall positive role of WWTPs, the results of the study showed that WWTP discharges can strongly affect the hydrology and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of receiving streams.

In the study, WWTPs increased stream flow, water conductivity and nitrogen/phosphorus content. They also significantly increased the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes downstream. For example, the ermB gene (which confers resistance to erythromycin, an antibiotic used to treat respiratory infections) occurred four times more frequently in biofilms collected downstream of WWTPs than in those collected upstream. The extent of the changes was influenced by the relative contribution of each WWTP. The authors say their findings suggest WWTP discharges support the spread of antibiotic resistance in streams.

The researchers found antibiotic resistance genes as far as 1 km downstream of the WWTPs, which suggests resistance genes can persist in the environment even in the absence of an additional pollution source, perhaps due to the ‘drift’ of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or resistance genes in the water flow. Alternatively, resistant bacteria or resistance genes could have entered the river from unknown sources located between the WWTP discharge site and the site 1 km downstream.

The authors say further studies are needed to determine the reason for the increase in antibiotic resistance in biofilms downstream of the WWTPs. It could have resulted from the release of resistant bacteria from the WWTPs, or from indigenous bacteria becoming resistant in response to the presence of antibiotic residues discharged into the streams. Overall, the researchers say river biofilms could be useful as indicators of anthropogenic pollution with pharmaceutical residues.

If wastewater discharges negatively affect the quality of a water body, for example by increasing the level of an antibiotic above an established environmental quality standard (EQS), measures must be taken by Member States to improve the water quality. At present, EQS for pollutants are set in relation to their toxic (or similar) effects on organisms. For antibiotics, account may also need to be taken of their role in triggering the development of resistance in bacteria, and of the significance of that resistance.

The Great Invasion

Documentary by Stéphane Horel on endocrine disrupting chemicals, 2010

We eat them, we breathe them, we touch them everyday. Without our knowing, thousands of invisible chemicals are part of our daily lives, embedded in our food and water, an integral part of our detergents, plastics, and fabrics. Brominated flame retardants, alkylphenols, permethrine, bisphenol-A, phthalates, parabens, organotins: the consumer society is taking a stroll inside our veins and organs, using obscure and unknown names. The bloodstreams of men, women, children and even polar bears carry chemicals that are supposed to be only found in modern world’s carpets and toasters.

Today, scientists worry about the impact of those chemicals on human health, on children’s especially. They think this continuous, invisible pollution is quietly poisoning humanity. Often ignored in the environmental debate, this silent pollution raises questions which go far beyond the fields of medicine and science. It also affects the organisation of our economic and political systems, as well as the foundations of our superabundance society.

More information

Two thirds of food cans from dozens of brands test positive for the toxic chemical BPA

Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families, 30 March 2016

A brand new report found 67% of nearly 200 food cans from dozens of brands and retailers tested positive for the toxic chemical Bisphenol A (BPA), a hormone disrupting chemical linked to breast and prostate cancer, infertility, and type-2 diabetes.

Kroger and Campbell’s Soup are food industry leaders who have the power and a moral responsibility to get toxic chemicals like BPA out of food packaging.

Act Now !

Perturbateurs endocriniens : nos vies empoisonnées

Envoyé spécial du 7 jeudi avril 2016,
Interviews de Charle Sultan, Lisette van Vliet, Stephane Horel

Une équipe du magazine “Envoyé spécial” a enquêté pendant des semaines sur ces polluants massivement utilisés dans l’industrie chimique, cosmétique ou agroalimentaire. On peut, sans le savoir, les ingérer ou les respirer et certains passent même à travers la peau. Ils sont soupçonnés de provoquer des problèmes d’infertilité et des malformations congénitales.

  • Envoyé spécial du jeudi 7 avril 2016, présenté par
    Guilaine Chenu, Françoise Joly, francetvinfo.
  • VIDEO. Envoyé spécial. Nos vies sont-elles empoisonnées ?, mis à jour le 08/04/2016, francetvinfo.
  • France 2 : Envoyé Spécial enquête sur les perturbateurs endocriniens, bioaddict.

Sur le même sujet

Exposure to Bisphenol-A derivatives: BPA alternatives likely to have similar effects

Newer analogues may also have endocrine-disrupting effects

Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many modern consumer products. It is found in common household equipment, food and drink cans, bottles and storage containers, CDs and vehicles, and has been found at high levels in cash-register receipts. Some scientific reports have linked exposure to BPA to endocrine (hormone) disruption, and lowered testosterone levels. In February this year, France proposed BPA as a REACH regulation candidate substance of very high concern.

Exposure to BPA derivatives: newer analogues may also have endocrine-disrupting effects, Science for Environment Policy News Alert, 08 April 2016.

As a result of these concerns, alternative substances have been introduced, with a similar but not identical structure to BPA. These analogues include bisphenol S and F (BPS, BPF), which have entered the consumer product market to provide the same functionality of BPA in a safer way. However, these compounds may still pose a risk to human health.

Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A, ScienceDirect, Environmental Pollution, Volume 85, December 2015, Pages 352–379.

When BPA comes into contact with chlorine in tap water, it forms chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA), which humans may be exposed to through water use. Findings on the health effects of ClxBPA have been based on in vitro and in vivo experiments and suggest a 10–40 times higher estrogenic activity than BPA. The health risks of BPA analogues have also been studied in the lab, which have shown links to endocrine disturbance.

Measurement of chemicals in biological substances, such as urine or blood, is called biomonitoring, and is an important method of assessing human exposure to toxic compounds.

This study, which received support from European Structural Funds, explored the findings of biomonitoring studies on ClxBPA and BPA analogues. The researchers carried out an extensive literature search to identify studies reporting biomonitoring of ClxBPA and BPA structural analogues in human samples. This led to the selection of 23 relevant articles.

The first reported human biomonitoring of ClxBPA was in 2005, while for BPA alternatives it was in 2010. Since then, 21 peer-reviewed studies have been published reporting internal exposure measurements of ClxBPA and BPA alternatives in various human samples. Articles reporting ClxBPA in human samples include fatty tissue, placenta, breast milk, urine, plasma and serum, while those reporting BPA alternatives included only urine and breast milk. The authors could not identify any studies looking at BPA analogues in other biological samples, reflecting their newer status.

Overall, the evidence suggests that human exposure to ClxBPA and BPA alternatives is widespread. The compounds have been detected in a range of environmental media and consumer products. Although the sources and pathways of exposure remain unclear, evidence suggests that BPA and its chlorinated derivatives enter the body through the airways, skin contact and ingestion.

In vitro and in vivo studies suggest BPA alternatives and chlorinated derivatives may contribute to the development of diabetes and obesity. The authors say there is a need for studies that follow lots of people over time to better understand the human health effects. They discuss methodological advances in biomonitoring protocols, and explain the need for time- and cost-effective sample-preparation procedures, faster chromatography run times and smaller sample volumes. They also discuss the need to monitor other halogenated forms of BPA (in addition to ClxBPA), which have shown adverse health effects in some studies.

Studies on humans could help to close knowledge gaps, such as the pathways that lead to exposure, sources in the environment and the potential endocrine-disrupting properties of the aforementioned BPA compounds. The authors also recommend investigations into whether other phenols in the environment contribute to metabolic disorders.

The Year My Mother Came Back

A powerful, poetic, magical, meaningful new memoir

motherFor the first time in decades I’m remembering Mom, all of her–the wonderful and terrible things about her that I’ve cast out of my thoughts for so long. I’m still struggling to prevent these memories from erupting from their subterranean depths. Trying to hold back the flood. I can’t, not today. The levees break.

Thirty years after her death, Alice Eve Cohen’s mother – (who had taken DES when pregnant) – appears to her, seemingly in the flesh, and continues to do so during the hardest year Alice has had to face: the year her youngest daughter needs a harrowing surgery, her eldest daughter decides to reunite with her birth mother, and Alice herself receives a daunting diagnosis. As it turns out, it’s entirely possible for the people we’ve lost to come back to us when we need them the most.

Although letting her mother back into her life is not an easy thing, Alice approaches it with humor, intelligence, and honesty. What she learns is that she must revisit her childhood and allow herself to be a daughter once more in order to take care of her own girls. Understanding and forgiving her mother’s parenting transgressions leads her to accept her own and to realize that she doesn’t have to be perfect to be a good mother.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

High levels of EDCs in the surface water near a fracking wastewater site

In W. Virginia, frack wastewater may be messing with hormones

Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations combine directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” to release natural gas and oil from underground rock.

Oil and Gas Wastewater Disposal May Increase Endocrine Disrupting Activity in Surface Water and Harm West Virginia Waterways, University of Missouri, APRIL 06, 2016

Recent studies have centered on potential water pollution from this process that may increase endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in surface and ground water and whether populations living near these operations have an increased risk of disease.

High Levels of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Found Near Fracking Wastewater Site, ecowatch, April 6, 2016.

Now, researchers from the University of Missouri (MU) report high levels of EDC activity in the surface water near a hydraulic fracturing wastewater disposal facility in West Virginia. Scientists warn that this level of activity may be associated with negative health effects in aquatic organisms, other animals and humans.

More people in the world are now obese than underweight

The world faces an epidemic of severe obesity

About a fifth of all adults around the world and a third of those in the UK will be obese by 2025, with potentially disastrous consequences for their health, according to a study.

Summary

Background
Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.

Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants, The Lancet, 2016.

Methods
We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18·5 kg/m2 [underweight], 18·5 kg/m2 to

Findings
We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21·7 kg/m2 (95% credible interval 21·3–22·1) in 1975 to 24·2 kg/m2 (24·0–24·4) in 2014 in men, and from 22·1 kg/m2 (21·7–22·5) in 1975 to 24·4 kg/m2 (24·2–24·6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21·4 kg/m2 in central Africa and south Asia to 29·2 kg/m2 (28·6–29·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21·8 kg/m2 (21·4–22·3) in south Asia to 32·2 kg/m2 (31·5–32·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13·8% (10·5–17·4) to 8·8% (7·4–10·3) in men and from 14·6% (11·6–17·9) to 9·7% (8·3–11·1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23·4% (17·8–29·2) in men and 24·0% (18·9–29·3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3·2% (2·4–4·1) in 1975 to 10·8% (9·7–12·0) in 2014 in men, and from 6·4% (5·1–7·8) to 14·9% (13·6–16·1) in women. 2·3% (2·0–2·7) of the world’s men and 5·0% (4·4–5·6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0·64% (0·46–0·86) in men and 1·6% (1·3–1·9) in women.

One fifth of adults worldwide will be obese by 2025, predicts study, The Guardian, 1 April 2016.

Interpretation
If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world’s poorest regions, especially in south Asia.

Whooping cough: hybrid vaccination protocol would make sense

Old Vaccine, New Tricks: Revive Early Pertussis Shot, Study Says

Hybrid vaccination protocol could cut whooping cough cases by 95 percent, Santa Fe Institute, March 29, 2016.

Whooping cough is making a major comeback in the United States right now, and public health officials are struggling with what to do about it. Now, two SFI researchers have a surprising proposal: go back to an old vaccine—one that was largely abandoned 25 years ago because of relatively minor side effects—but do it for just the first of the usual five doses. Doing so, they says, could cut pertussis cases by 95 percent and save $142 million per year.

Abstract

Epidemiological and Economic Effects of Priming With the Whole-Cell Bordetella pertussis Vaccine, JAMA Pediatrics, March 28, 2016.

Importance
Current acellular pertussis vaccines may not protect against transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

Objective
To assess whether a priming dose of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine is cost-effective at reducing pertussis infection in infants.

Design, Setting, and Participants
Mathematical model of pertussis transmission fit to US incidence data in a simulation of the US population. In this simulation study conducted from June 2014 to May 2015, the population was divided into 9 age groups corresponding to the current pertussis vaccination schedule and fit to 2012 pertussis incidence.

Interventions
Inclusion of a priming dose of wP vaccine into the current acellular pertussis vaccination schedule.

Main Outcomes and Measures
Reductions in symptomatic pertussis incidence by age group, increases in wP vaccine–related adverse effects, and quality-adjusted life-years owing to changing vaccine schedule.

Old Vaccine, New Tricks: Revive Early Pertussis Shot, Study Says, livescience, March 28, 2016.

Results
Switching to a wP-priming vaccination strategy could reduce whooping cough incidence by up to 95% (95% CI, 91-98), including 96% (95% CI, 92-98) fewer infections in neonates. Although there may be an increase in the number of vaccine adverse effects, we nonetheless estimate a 95% reduction in quality-adjusted life-years lost with a switch to the combined strategy and a cost reduction of 94% (95% CI, 91-97), saving more than $142 million annually.

Conclusions and Relevance
Our results suggest that an alternative vaccination schedule including 1 dose of wP vaccine may be highly cost-effective and ethically preferred until next-generation pertussis vaccines become available.