Produits laitiers : n’achetez pas de lait (non bio)

Biocoop et l’achat responsable, 2014

Le visuel symbolise l’envers du décors des produits non bio et dénonce leurs méthodes de production.

A travers sa campagne 2014 de data-telling, Biocoop poursuivit son discours de sensibilisation sur la portée de l’acte d’achat. Les images présentent des produits de consommation courante et montrent les effets néfastes sur la planète et pour notre santé.

Aquatic life needs further protection from effects of personal care products

An aggregate analysis of personal care products in the environment: identifying the distribution of environmentally-relevant concentrations

Personal care products (PCPs) are a diverse group of products, including toothpaste, shampoo, make-up and soaps. The number and use of these products has increased over recent decades, generating concern about their impact on the environment. This literature review analysed over 5 000 reports of environmental detection of 95 different chemicals from PCPs. The analysis reveals toxic levels of PCP chemicals in raw and treated wastewater, and in surface water. The researchers recommend treatment methods focusing on antimicrobials, UV filters and fragrance molecules.

Abstract

An aggregate analysis of personal care products in the environment: Identifying the distribution of environmentally-relevant concentrations, science direct, Environment International, Volumes 92–93, July–August 2016, Pages 301–316, September 2016.

Lines on surface by patricksinot.

Over the past 3–4 decades, per capita consumption of personal care products (PCPs) has steadily risen, resulting in increased discharge of the active and inactive ingredients present in these products into wastewater collection systems. PCPs comprise a long list of compounds employed in toothpaste, sunscreen, lotions, soaps, body washes, and insect repellants, among others. While comprehensive toxicological studies are not yet available, an increasing body of literature has shown that PCPs of all classes can impact aquatic wildlife, bacteria, and/or mammalian cells at low concentrations. Ongoing research efforts have identified PCPs in a variety of environmental compartments, including raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, surface water, wastewater solids, sediment, groundwater, and drinking water.

Here, an aggregate analysis of over 5000 reported detections was conducted to better understand the distribution of environmentally-relevant PCP concentrations in, and between, these compartments. The distributions were used to identify whether aggregated environmentally-relevant concentration ranges intersected with available toxicity data. For raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, and surface water, a clear overlap was present between the 25th–75th percentiles and identified toxicity levels.

This analysis suggests that improved wastewater treatment of antimicrobials, UV filters, and polycyclic musks is required to prevent negative impacts on aquatic species.

The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards

Chemicals risk assessment: Baltic study recommends more monitoring of emerging pollutants

Chemicals are everywhere and new substances are regularly being introduced to the market. However, only some pose a risk to the environment. How do we decide which of them to monitor? A new study using a database of chemicals found in fish in the Baltic Sea has assessed which chemicals are commonly monitored. The researchers suggest that monitoring is biased towards known, already regulated hazardous chemicals, and recommend changes to address other chemicals.

Abstract

The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards, Royal Society of Chemistry, 05 May 2016.

Musa Bay, earthobservatory.nasa.

A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential.

In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant).

These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

Des fruits trop beaux : n’achetez pas de pommes (traitées chimiquement)

Biocoop et l’achat responsable, 2014

Le visuel symbolise les risques pour la santé liés à l’utilisation des produits chimiques de synthèse (engrais et pesticides) dans l’agriculture intensive.

A travers sa campagne 2014 de data-telling, Biocoop poursuivit son discours de sensibilisation sur la portée de l’acte d’achat. Les images présentent des produits de consommation courante et montrent les effets néfastes sur la planète et pour notre santé.

Risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer of the cervix in DES daughters

US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Gynecologic oncology, 2016

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero (DES) have an increased risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina and cervix, while their risk of non-CCA invasive cervical cancer is still unclear.

METHODS
We studied the risk of pre-cancerous (CIN) lesions and non-CCA invasive cervical cancer in a prospective cohort of 12,182 women with self-reported DES exposure followed from 2000 till 2008. We took screening behavior carefully into account. Incidence was obtained through linkage with the Netherlands Nationwide Pathology database (PALGA). General population data were also derived from PALGA.

Risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer of the cervix in DES daughters, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Gynecologic oncology, NCBI PubMed PMID: 27939984, 2016 Dec 7.

RESULTS
The incidence of CIN1 was increased (Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR)=2.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=2.3 to 3.4), but no increased risk was observed for CIN2+ (CIN2, CIN3 or invasive cancer) compared to the screened general population (SIR=1.1, 95% CI=0.95 to1.4). Women with DES-related malformations had increased risks of both CIN1 and CIN2+ (SIR=4.1, 95%CI=3.0 to 5.3 and SIR=1.5, 95%CI=1.1 to 2.0, respectively). For CIN2+, this risk increase was largely restricted to women with malformations who were more intensively screened.

CONCLUSIONS
An increased risk of CIN1 among DES daughters was observed, especially in women with DES-related malformations, probably mainly due to screening. The risk of CIN2+ (including cancer) was not increased. However, among DES daughters with DES-related malformations a true small risk increase for non-CCA cervical cancer cannot be excluded.

Click to download the full paper.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Produits alimentaires emballés : n’achetez pas d’oeufs (en boite)

Biocoop et l’achat responsable, 2014

Le visuel symbolise l’impact des emballages ménagers en France.

A travers sa campagne 2014 de data-telling, Biocoop poursuivit son discours de sensibilisation sur la portée de l’acte d’achat. Les images présentent des produits de consommation courante et montrent les effets néfastes sur la planète et pour notre santé.

Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union

One third of all reptile species in EU at high risk of pesticide exposure

Pesticide exposure can have negative impacts on many species and is a major threat to biodiversity.

A new study is one of few to assess the risks specifically for European reptiles.

The results suggest that at least one third of European reptile species are at high risk of exposure, with lizards showing the highest sensitivity to pesticides.

Abstract

Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union, Science Direct, August 2016.

Turtle & frog image by usfwshq.

Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies.

We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors – (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history – a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups.

By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes.

New tool for the assessment and prioritization of persistence of chemicals under REACH

New computer modelling tool to identify persistent chemicals

Chemicals that persist in the environment can harm humans and wildlife.

This study describes a computer modelling-based approach to predict which chemical compounds are likely to be persistent.

The models were correctly able to predict persistence for 11 of 12 chemicals tested and could provide a cost-effective alternative to laboratory testing.

Abstract

A new integrated in silico strategy for the assessment and prioritization of persistence of chemicals under REACH, science direct, pii/S0160412015301240, 2013.

The fact that chemicals can be recalcitrant and persist in the environment arouses concern since their effects may seriously harm human and environmental health.

We compiled three datasets containing half-life (HL) data on sediment, soil and water compartments in order to build in silico models and, finally, an integrated strategy for predicting persistence to be used within the EU legislation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals (REACH). After splitting the datasets into training (80%) and test sets (20%), we developed models for each compartment using the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN). Accuracy was higher than 0.79 and 0.76 respectively in the training and test sets for all three compartments. To support the k-NN predictions, we identified some structural alerts, using SARpy software, with a high-true positive percentage in the test set and some chemical classes related to persistence using the software IstChemFeat.

All these results were combined to build an integrated model and to reach to an overall conclusion (based on assessment and reliability) on the persistence of the substance. The results on the external validation set were very encouraging and support the idea that this tool can be used successfully for regulatory purposes and to prioritize substances.

Des fruits toute l’année : n’achetez pas de fraises (en hiver)

Biocoop et l’achat responsable, 2014

Le visuel symbolise le nombre de camions (et donc de carburant) mis à contribution pour proposer des fraises en hiver.

A travers sa campagne 2014 de data-telling, Biocoop poursuivit son discours de sensibilisation sur la portée de l’acte d’achat. Les images présentent des produits de consommation courante et montrent les effets néfastes sur la planète et pour notre santé.

Mutations in life’s ‘essential genes’ tied to autism

Increased burden of deleterious variants in essential genes in autism spectrum disorder

Genes known to be essential to life—the ones humans need to survive and thrive in the womb—also play a critical role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), suggests a new study. An analysis of genetic samples of over 1,700 families from a repository revealed that elevated levels of mutations in the “essential genes” was significantly associated with an increased risk for ASD and decreased social skills.

Significance

Essential genes (EGs) are necessary for survival and the development of an organism. Our study is focused on investigating the role of EGs in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With a comprehensive catalog of 3,915 mammalian EGs, we show that there is both an elevated burden of damaging mutations in EGs in ASD probands and also, an enrichment of EGs in known ASD risk genes. Moreover, the analysis of EGs in the developing brain identified clusters of coexpressed EGs implicated in ASD. Overall, we provide evidence that genes that are essential for survival and fitness also contribute to ASD risk and lead to the disruption of normal social behavior.

Abstract

Increased burden of deleterious variants in essential genes in autism spectrum disorder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, November 7, 2016.

Image new 1lluminati.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavior. It is estimated that hundreds of genes contribute to ASD. We asked if genes with a strong effect on survival and fitness contribute to ASD risk. Human orthologs of genes with an essential role in pre- and postnatal development in the mouse [essential genes (EGs)] are enriched for disease genes and under strong purifying selection relative to human orthologs of mouse genes with a known nonlethal phenotype [nonessential genes (NEGs)]. This intolerance to deleterious mutations, commonly observed haploinsufficiency, and the importance of EGs in development suggest a possible cumulative effect of deleterious variants in EGs on complex neurodevelopmental disorders. With a comprehensive catalog of 3,915 mammalian EGs, we provide compelling evidence for a stronger contribution of EGs to ASD risk compared with NEGs. By examining the exonic de novo and inherited variants from 1,781 ASD quartet families, we show a significantly higher burden of damaging mutations in EGs in ASD probands compared with their non-ASD siblings. The analysis of EGs in the developing brain identified clusters of coexpressed EGs implicated in ASD. Finally, we suggest a high-priority list of 29 EGs with potential ASD risk as targets for future functional and behavioral studies. Overall, we show that large-scale studies of gene function in model organisms provide a powerful approach for prioritization of genes and pathogenic variants identified by sequencing studies of human disease.