100% of the personalities have traces of Bisphenols, PCBs, pesticides and phthalates
Générations Futures EXPPERT survey number 9 provides the results of tests for the presence of suspected or known endocrine disruptors in hair samples of some leading environmentalists in France. The worrying and conclusive results are the basis for a further call to the European Commission to improve its proposal on criteria for identifying endocrine disrupting chemicals ahead of a possible vote by EU Member States on 28 February 2017.
Paris, Brussels, 24 February 2017 – Seven environmentalists in France have their hair analysed for traces of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Generations Futures, with the support of HEAL and other members of the EDC-Free Europe coalition, published a new report yesterday, the 9th survey of the EXPPERT series on population exposure to chemicals that are suspected or known to disrupt the endocrine system. The results are unchallengeable!
Who? In this new survey, Générations Futures asked personalities from the environmental movement to entrust to us a lock of their hair, which we had analysed by a competent laboratory. The participants were Yann Arthus-Bertrand, Isabelle Autissier, Delphine Batho, José Bové, Nicolas Hulot, Yannick Jadot and Marie-Monique Robin.
What? Approximately 200 pesticides (products used in agriculture and in the home to get rid of “harmful” or “undesirable” flora and fauna) and pesticide metabolites (resulting from metabolism), three bisphenols (plasticiser used in the composition of the polycarbonate – hard plastic), 13 phthalates and metabolites of phthalates (plasticisers used to soften plastics) and 32 PCB congeners (PCBs have been banned since 1987 but were used massively in electric transformers and as heat transfer fluid.).
Results? 100% of the personalities has traces of each of the families of compounds analysed in their bodies!
– We discover between 36 (D. Batho) and 68 (I. Autissier) endocrine disrupters per personality. The quantities varied from 9 031 μg/mg of endocrine disrupting chemical (D. Batho) to 158 643 μg/mg (I. Autism) – a discrepancy factor of 17.5 times between the least contaminated person (D. Batho) and the most contaminated person (I. Autissier). This clearly shows that individual’s exposure is not uniform but rather varies considerably according to the environment in which they circulate and/or in which they have developed and lived.
Bisphenols: All the personalities tested had at least one of the three bisphenols in their hair. Three out of the seven people tested had the renowned Bisphenol A in their hair: M-M. Robin, Y. Arthus-Bertrand and I. Autissier. All 7 had Bisphenol S but none had signs of Bisphenol F.
Phthalates: 11 of the 13 phthalates or metabolites of phthalates tested for were found at least in one person. Neither MMP or DPP were found in any sample. The number of phthalates and metabolites of phthalates found ranged from eight to 11 depending on the individual. Between six and 10 of these molecules could be quantified in each person.
PCBs: All samples that could be analysed contained PCBs: between 14 and 30 PCBs were found in participants’ samples.
Pesticides: 32 molecules suspected of being endocrine disruptors or endocrine disrupting metabolites were found in at least one person. Between nine and 25 of these pesticides were found in each hair sample tested.
“The hair of the personalities tested all contain an important cocktail of many endocrine disruptors (between 36 and 68 per person) although tests were only carried out on four families of chemicals. And these cocktails pose a problem – what is the health impact of this mixture?”
“This report points out more than ever the need to remove endocrine disrupting substances from our environment. Only a truly protective definition within the European framework will ensure that endocrine disruptors are excluded from the market and protect populations from these hazardous compounds. That is why the vote on the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed (SCOPAFF) on 28 February is so important! We urge all national governments to reject the European Commission’s proposal on the criteria for endocrine disrupting chemicals in its current form and insist on major changes to ensure that proven, probable or suspected endocrine disruptors to which we are exposed are identified as such. Only in this way will these chemicals be prohibited from use as required in the European legislation voted in 2009, to protect our health.”
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Reproductive toxicology, 2016
Epidemiological and model system studies support an early origin of reproductive dysfunction.
Estrogenic/anti-androgenic chemicals as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have vast developmental influences on adult reproductive outcomes.
Gestational, perinatal, neonatal, and pubertal periods are “windows of susceptibility” for epigenetic programming.
EDCs induce exposure-specific epigenetic modifications in regulatory genes in organs of the reproductive system.
Germline epigenetic disruption is a mechanism underlying transgenerational inheritance of reproductive disorders.
2017 Study Abstract
Environmental factors, epigenetics, and developmental origin of reproductive disorders, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), NCBI PubMed PMID: 27421580, 2016 Jul.
Sex-specific differentiation, development, and function of the reproductive system are largely dependent on steroid hormones.
For this reason, developmental exposure to estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with reproductive dysfunction in adulthood.
Human data in support of “Developmental Origins of Health and Disease” (DOHaD) comes from multigenerational studies on offspring of diethylstilbestrol-exposed mothers/grandmothers.
Animal data indicate that ovarian reserve, female cycling, adult uterine abnormalities, sperm quality, prostate disease, and mating behavior are susceptible to DOHaD effects induced by EDCs such as bisphenol A, genistein, diethylstilbestrol, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene, phthalates, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
Mechanisms underlying these EDC effects include direct mimicry of sex steroids or morphogens and interference with epigenomic sculpting during cell and tissue differentiation.
Exposure to EDCs is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and other epigenetic modifications, as well as altered expression of genes important for development and function of reproductive tissues.
Here we review the literature exploring the connections between developmental exposure to EDCs and adult reproductive dysfunction, and the mechanisms underlying these effects.
The weight of evidence pointing towards a role for EDCs in influencing obesity offers not just a mechanistic understanding of the obesity crisis but also a strategy for prevention
2017 Study Abstract
Purpose of Review The purpose of this review was to summarise current evidence that some environmental chemicals may be able to interfere in the endocrine regulation of energy metabolism and adipose tissue structure.
Recent Findings Recent findings demonstrate that such endocrine-disrupting chemicals, termed “obesogens”, can promote adipogenesis and cause weight gain. This includes compounds to which the human population is exposed in daily life through their use in pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents, flame retardants and as ingredients in personal care products. Animal models and epidemiological studies have shown that an especially sensitive time for exposure is in utero or the neonatal period.
Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Current obesity reports, NCBI PubMed PMID: 28205155, 2017 Feb 15.
Summary In summarising the actions of obesogens, it is noteworthy that as their structures are mainly lipophilic, their ability to increase fat deposition has the added consequence of increasing the capacity for their own retention. This has the potential for a vicious spiral not only of increasing obesity but also increasing the retention of other lipophilic pollutant chemicals with an even broader range of adverse actions. This might offer an explanation as to why obesity is an underlying risk factor for so many diseases including cancer.
Read and download the full study (free access) on Springer.
The Sunday Mirror has carried out a damning investigation, which condemns British internet pharmacies
A damning probe by the Sunday Mirror has exposed online pharmacies who dish out antibiotics and other pills with scant checks.
It took just 60 seconds to get one prescription approved, three minutes for another and the Sunday Mirror team was even able to get multiple batches of pills because there was no apparent cross-checking between sites.
The Sunday Mirror team easily bought five types of prescription-only antibiotics – plus slimming and sleeping pills – available from ”Superdrug Online Doctor”, “Lloyds Pharmacy”, “The Online Clinic”, “Medical Specialists”, and other British internet chemists with just a few clicks of a mouse.
2017 Study Abstract
Background: Improved antibiotic stewardship (AS) and reduced prescribing in primary care, with a parallel increase in personal internet use, could lead citizens to obtain antibiotics from alternative sources online.
Objectives: A cross-sectional analysis was performed to:
determine the quality and legality of online pharmacies selling antibiotics to the UK public;
describe processes for obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK;
and identify resulting AS and patient safety issues.
Methods: Searches were conducted for ‘buy antibiotics online’ using Google and Yahoo. For each search engine, data from the first 10 web sites with unique URL addresses were reviewed. Analysis was conducted on evidence of appropriate pharmacy registration, prescription requirement, whether antibiotic choice was ‘prescriber-driven’ or ‘consumer-driven’, and whether specific information was required (allergies, comorbidities, pregnancy) or given (adverse effects) prior to purchase.
Results: Twenty unique URL addresses were analysed in detail. Online pharmacies evidencing their location in the UK (n = 5; 25%) required a prescription before antibiotic purchase, and were appropriately registered. Online pharmacies unclear about the location they were operating from (n = 10; 50%) had variable prescription requirements, and no evidence of appropriate registration. Nine (45%) online pharmacies did not require a prescription prior to purchase. For 16 (80%) online pharmacies, decisions were initially consumer-driven for antibiotic choice, dose and quantity.
Conclusions: Wide variation exists among online pharmacies in relation to antibiotic practices, highlighting considerable patient safety and AS issues. Improved education, legislation, regulation and new best practice stewardship guidelines are urgently needed for online antibiotic suppliers.
Read Obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK: a cross-sectional study, academic.oup, doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx003, 17 February 2017.
Read The scandal of the online pills trade which is threatening everyone’s safety, The Mirror, 11 FEB 2017. Image credit rxstars.
International Journal of Clinical Medicine, February 21, 2017
2017 Study Abstract
Background Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay farm transgenic seeds glyphosate resistant. Argentina annually utilizes 240,000 tonnes of glyphosate in agriculture. A change in the profile of morbidity and mortality is perceived in agricultural areas; cancer seems to prevail. Monte Maíz is a typical argentine agricultural town with 8000 inhabitants; the Mayor and residents of Monte Maiz requested an environmental health study due to perceived increase in cancer frequencies.
Methods An exploratory ecological study was developed to assess the urban environmental contamination and the frequencies and distribution of cancer through an environmental analysis of pollution sources including measurements of pesticides in water, soil and grain dust, and a cross-sectional study of cancer patients that explore associations with different variables.
Results Glyphosate was detected in soil and grain dust and was found to be at an even higher concentration in the village soil than in the rural area. 650 tonnes are used annually in the region and manipulated inner town. We do not find other relevant sources of pollution. Cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality are between two and three times higher than the reference values (Globocan 2012, WHO) for the entire nation (706/100,000 persons vs. 217/100,000; 2123/100,000 persons vs. 883.82/100,000 and 383/100,000 persons vs. 115.13/100,000, respectively).
Conclusion This study detects high glyphosate pollution in association with increased frequencies of cancer in a typical argentine agricultural village, and by design, cannot make claims of causality. Other study designs are required, but if we corroborate the concrescence of high exposure to glyphosate and cancer.
Researchers find pesticide spills, accidents may alter farmworkers’ DNA
Farmworkers who have a high pesticide exposure event—such as a spill—are more likely to experience molecular changes on DNA that may lead to certain cancers, according to a large U.S. study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina.
The research, part of the ongoing Agricultural Health Study that is monitoring the health of more than 57,000 private and commercial pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina, adds to growing evidence that high exposure to certain pesticides may spur prostate and other cancers in people handling the chemicals.
2017 Study Abstract
High pesticide exposure events and DNA methylation among pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study, Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, NCBI PubMed PMID: 27996157, 2017 Jan.
Pesticide exposure has been associated with acute and chronic adverse health effects. DNA methylation (DNAm) may mediate these effects.
We evaluated the association between experiencing unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) and DNAm among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective study of applicators from Iowa and North Carolina.
DNA was extracted from whole blood from male AHS pesticide applicators (n = 695). Questionnaire data were used to ascertain the occurrence of HPEEs over the participant’s lifetime. Pyrosequencing was used to quantify DNAm in CDH1, GSTp1, and MGMT promoters, and in the repetitive element, LINE-1. Linear and robust regression analyses evaluated adjusted associations between HPEE and DNAm. Ever having an HPEE (n = 142; 24%) was associated with elevated DNAm in the GSTp1 promoter at CpG7 (chr11:67,351,134; P < 0.01) and for the mean across the CpGs measured in the GSTp1 promoter (P < 0.01). In stratified analyses, elevated GSTP1 promoter DNAm associated with HPEE was more pronounced among applicators >59 years and those with plasma folate levels ≤16.56 ng/mL (p-interaction <0.01); HPEE was associated with reduced MGMT promoter DNAm at CpG2 (chr10:131,265,803; P = 0.03), CpG3 (chr10:131,265,810; P = 0.05), and the mean across CpGs measured in the MGMT promoter (P = 0.03) among applicators >59 years and reduced LINE-1 DNAm (P = 0.05) among applicators with ≤16.56 ng/mL plasma folate. Non-specific HPEEs may contribute to increased DNAm in GSTp1, and in some groups, reduced DNAm in MGMT and LINE-1.
The impacts of these alterations on disease development are unclear, but elevated GSTp1 promoter DNAm and subsequent gene inactivation has been consistently associated with prostate cancer.