Fetal Origin of Adult Disease

Abstract from “Environmental Exposures and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Science”

During the last two decades, chronic disease has replaced infectious disease as the major focus of public health concern. The top 4 leading causes of death in the United States are chronic diseases. There remains much unknown about the etiology of many chronic conditions, which in most cases is probably multifactorial. Studies from the 1990s found that effects on the fetal environment, such as through poor or inadequate nutrition, can result in an increased risk of adult onset of chronic conditions, such as coronary heart disease. This has been called the fetal origins hypothesis (also known as the Barker theory), which proposes that external influences on the fetal environment can increase the risk of later disease in adulthood.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)—a synthetic estrogen given to US women between 1938 and 1971 to prevent pregnancy complications illustrates the fetal origins of later in life disease. In utero DES exposure left mature female offspring at increased risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix, breast cancer, structural reproductive tract anomalies, an increased infertility rate, and poor pregnancy outcomes, while male offspring have an increased incidence of genital abnormalities and a possibly increased risk of prostate and testicular cancer. These observed human effects have been confirmed in numerous animal models, which have also predicted changes later found in DES-exposed humans, such as increased incidence of uterine fibroids, oviductal malformations, and second generational effects such as increased menstrual irregularities and possibly ovarian cancer in DES granddaughters and increased hypospadias in DES grandsons.

Diethylstilbestrol shows the adverse effects of fetal exposures to synthetic chemicals may not be apparent at birth or even for many years afterward, and that continued monitoring of this cohort of exposed children and grandchildren is necessary to inform potential effects of prenatal exposures to other contaminants.

Reference. Image credit Hush Naidoo.

DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Author: DES Daughter

Activist, blogger and social media addict committed to shedding light on a global health scandal and dedicated to raise DES awareness.

Have your say! Share your views

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.