Environmental impact of estrogens on human, animal and plant life: A critical review

Water Pollution Caused by Birth Control Poses Dilemma – Environment International, 2017

2017 Study Abstract

Background
Since the inception of global industrialization, steroidal estrogens have become an emerging and serious concern. Worldwide, steroid estrogens including estrone, estradiol and estriol, pose serious threats to soil, plants, water resources and humans. Indeed, estrogens have gained notable attention in recent years, due to their rapidly increasing concentrations in soil and water all over the world. Concern has been expressed regarding the entry of estrogens into the human food chain which in turn relates to how plants take up and metabolism estrogens.

Objectives
In this review we explore the environmental fate of estrogens highlighting their release through effluent sources, their uptake, partitioning and physiological effects in the ecological system. We draw attention to the potential risk of intensive modern agriculture and waste disposal systems on estrogen release and their effects on human health. We also highlight their uptake and metabolism in plants.

Methods
We use MEDLINE and other search data bases for estrogens in the environment from 2005 to the present, with the majority of our sources spanning the past five years. Published acceptable daily intake of estrogens (μg/L) and predicted no effect concentrations (μg/L) are listed from published sources and used as thresholds to discuss reported levels of estrogens in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Global levels of estrogens from river sources and from Waste Water Treatment Facilities have been mapped, together with transport pathways of estrogens in plants.

Results
Estrogens at polluting levels have been detected at sites close to waste water treatment facilities and in groundwater at various sites globally. Estrogens at pollutant levels have been linked with breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. Estrogens also perturb fish physiology and can affect reproductive development in both domestic and wild animals. Treatment of plants with steroid estrogen hormones or their precursors can affect root and shoot development, flowering and germination. However, estrogens can ameliorate the effects of other environmental stresses on the plant.

Conclusions
There is published evidence to establish a causal relationship between estrogens in the environment and breast cancer. However, there are serious gaps in our knowledge about estrogen levels in the environment and a call is required for a world wide effort to provide more data on many more samples sites. Of the data available, the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol, is more persistent in the environment than natural estrogens and may be a greater cause for environmental concern. Finally, we believe that there is an urgent requirement for inter-disciplinary studies of estrogens in order to better understand their ecological and environmental impact.

Glyphosate, Epigenetics and Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease

Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology, 2019

Listen to Dr. Eric Nilsson, Research Assistant Professor in the School of Biological Sciences at Washington State University, presenting a recent study investigating exposure to the herbicide glyphosate in rats. The study found that the exposed rats’ subsequent grand-offspring and un-exposed great grand-offspring had higher rates of disease. Reference.

Abstract

Ancestral environmental exposures to a variety of factors and toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. One of the most widely used agricultural pesticides worldwide is the herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), commonly known as Roundup. There are an increasing number of conflicting reports regarding the direct exposure toxicity (risk) of glyphosate, but no rigorous investigations on the generational actions. The current study using a transient exposure of gestating F0 generation female rats found negligible impacts of glyphosate on the directly exposed F0 generation, or F1 generation offspring pathology. In contrast, dramatic increases in pathologies in the F2 generation grand-offspring, and F3 transgenerational great-grand-offspring were observed. The transgenerational pathologies observed include prostate disease, obesity, kidney disease, ovarian disease, and parturition (birth) abnormalities. Epigenetic analysis of the F1, F2 and F3 generation sperm identified differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). A number of DMR associated genes were identified and previously shown to be involved in pathologies. Therefore, we propose glyphosate can induce the transgenerational inheritance of disease and germline (e.g. sperm) epimutations. Observations suggest the generational toxicology of glyphosate needs to be considered in the disease etiology of future generations.

A DES-victim and hero celebrated

Alan Turing to be the face on the new £50 banknote

Homosexual acts were criminal offences in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and Alan Turing was charged with “gross indecency” under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885. Brought to trial on 31 March 1952, he was convicted and given a choice between imprisonment and probation. His probation would be conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal physical changes designed to reduce libido. He accepted the option of injections of what was then called stilboestrol (also known as diethylstilbestrol or DES), a synthetic oestrogen; this feminization of his body was continued for the course of one year. The treatment rendered Turing impotent and caused breast tissue to form, fulfilling in the literal sense Turing’s prediction that “no doubt I shall emerge from it all a different man, but quite who I’ve not found out”.

Selected Press Releases

  • Alan Turing, World War II code-breaker castrated for being gay, is the face of Britain’s £50 note, CNN Business July 15, 2019 – Alan Turing belongs on the UK’s £50 note; now put Harriet Tubman on the $20 bill, CNN Opinion, July 16, 2019.
  • Alan Turing is crowned the most iconic figure of the 20th centurydailymail, 6 February 2019.
  • Pardon all of the estimated 49,000 men who, like Alan Turing, were convicted of consenting same-sex relations under the British “gross indecency” law (only repealed in 2003), and also all the other men convicted under other UK anti-gay lawschange.org, Feb 10, 2015.
  • The Castration of Alan Turing, Britain’s Code-Breaking WWII Herothedailybeast, 11.29.14.
  • Alan Turings name restored with film about his work, life and identity,
    oddonion, November 14, 2014.
  • Budget 2014: Alan Turing Institute to lead big data research,
    oddonion, March 19, 2014.
  • The Imitation Game, based on the real life story of Alan Turingdesdaughter, 2015/02/14.
  • Alan Turing granted Royal pardon by the Queentelegraph, 24 Dec 2013.
  • Grant a pardon to Alan Turinepetitions, Closing:23/11/2012.
  • Alan Turing: Inquest’s suicide verdict ‘not supportable’BBC Radio Science Unit, 26 June 2012.
  • ALAN TURING AND HIS MACHINES – FRESH INSIGHTS INTO THE ENIGMAindependent.co.uk, 14 June 2012.
  • How Alan Turing Finally Got a Posthumous Apologyradar, September 17, 2009.
  • PM apology after Turing petitionBBC News, 11 September 2009.
  • Gordon Brown: I’m proud to say sorry to a real war herotelegraph, 10 Sep 2009.
DES DIETHYLSTILBESTROL RESOURCES

Alan Turing to be the face on the new £50 banknote

Castrated with DES for being gay, Alan Turing will appear on the new £50 polymer note

15 July 2019 – Today, Bank of England Governor, Mark Carney, announced that Alan Turing will appear on the new £50 polymer note. Making the announcement at the Science and Industry Museum in Manchester, the Governor also revealed the imagery depicting Alan Turing and his work that will be used for the reverse of the note. The new polymer £50 note is expected to enter circulation by the end of 2021. BOE news release.

“We want to represent as best as possible all aspects of diversity within the country, from race, religion, creed, sexual orientation, disability and beyond. What we have today is a celebration of one of the greatest mathematicians and scientists in the United Kingdom and not just this country’s history but world history.”

“Turing was homosexual and was posthumously pardoned by the Queen, having been convicted of gross indecency for his relationship with a man. His legacy continues to have an impact on both science and society today.”

Turing was found guilty of gross indecency and had to decide between going to prison or undergoing chemical castration. He chose the latter, a horrifying treatment that involved (DES) hormonal injections.

“I hope it will serve as a stark and rightfully painful reminder of what we lost in Turing, and what we risk when we allow that kind of hateful ideology to win.”

“It is almost impossible to put into words the difference that Alan Turing made to society, but perhaps the most poignant example is that his work is estimated to have shortened the war by four years and saved up to 21 million lives. And yet the way he was treated afterwards remains a national embarrassment and an example of society at its absolute worst.”

Selected Press Releases

  • Alan Turing, World War II code-breaker castrated for being gay, is the face of Britain’s £50 note, CNN Business July 15, 2019 – Alan Turing belongs on the UK’s £50 note; now put Harriet Tubman on the $20 bill, CNN Opinion, July 16, 2019.
  • Alan Turing is crowned the most iconic figure of the 20th centurydailymail, 6 February 2019.
  • Pardon all of the estimated 49,000 men who, like Alan Turing, were convicted of consenting same-sex relations under the British “gross indecency” law (only repealed in 2003), and also all the other men convicted under other UK anti-gay lawschange.org, Feb 10, 2015.
  • The Castration of Alan Turing, Britain’s Code-Breaking WWII Herothedailybeast, 11.29.14.
  • Alan Turings name restored with film about his work, life and identity,
    oddonion, November 14, 2014.
  • Budget 2014: Alan Turing Institute to lead big data research,
    oddonion, March 19, 2014.
  • The Imitation Game, based on the real life story of Alan Turingdesdaughter, 2015/02/14.
  • Alan Turing granted Royal pardon by the Queentelegraph, 24 Dec 2013.
  • Grant a pardon to Alan Turinepetitions, Closing:23/11/2012.
  • Alan Turing: Inquest’s suicide verdict ‘not supportable’BBC Radio Science Unit, 26 June 2012.
  • ALAN TURING AND HIS MACHINES – FRESH INSIGHTS INTO THE ENIGMAindependent.co.uk, 14 June 2012.
  • How Alan Turing Finally Got a Posthumous Apologyradar, September 17, 2009.
  • PM apology after Turing petitionBBC News, 11 September 2009.
  • Gordon Brown: I’m proud to say sorry to a real war herotelegraph, 10 Sep 2009.
DES DIETHYLSTILBESTROL RESOURCES

Comment un géant pharmaceutique a saboté le combat pour un traitement anti-cancéreux abordable

Novartis contre la Colombie ; la guerre du prix du Glivec – 2015-2019

En Colombie, le prix d’un médicament anti-leucémique est devenu trop élevé pour le budget de la santé publique. En 2015, le gouvernement décide donc d’émettre une déclaration d’intérêt public pour le Glivec, privant ainsi le géant pharmaceutique Novartis de son monopole de production, dans un espoir de faire baisser le prix du médicament en faisant jouer la concurrence. Mais Novartis, craignant de voir sa poule aux œufs d’or lui échapper, menace d’attaquer la Colombie devant un tribunal d’arbitrage international. Si le prix du Glivec finit par baisser, les tactiques d’intimidation de Novartis ont aussi raison des velléités du gouvernement de mettre fin au monopole de Novartis. Le géant suisse parvient à éviter un fâcheux précédent, qui en faisant des émules, aurait pu entamer ses énormes bénéfices dans le monde.

Référence. Téléchargez l’affaire.

Comprendre la perturbation endocrinienne

“Émission du Labo”, enregistrée en public au Lieu Unique, Nantes, le 14 mai 2019

Les sources d’exposition sont nombreuses et difficiles à maîtriser, tout comme leurs conséquences biologiques.

Historiquement, les perturbateurs endocriniens ont commencé à attirer l’attention des chercheur·euses dès les années 1950. Mais c’est l’affaire du distilbène qui, dans les années 1970, a fait exploser le sujet sur la scène scientifique et médiatique, alors même que le terme de “perturbateur endocrinien” n’était pas encore utilisé.

Aujourd’hui, c’est un enjeu majeur de santé publique, pour nous qui sommes vivants, mais aussi pour les générations futures, celles qui n’ont pas encore vu le jour. Référence.

Le Distilbène DES, en savoir plus

Les perturbateurs endocriniens, expliqués en 90 secondes

AFP Graphics = infographics, videographics, 3D animations

Cliquez sur > pour lancer l’animation 3D

Le Distilbène DES, en savoir plus

Chemicals, pesticides, microplastics added to supermarket food

The Honest Supermarket – What’s Really in Our Food ?

Can we trust our supermarkets to tell us the truth about what we are buying and how it was produced ?

For every pound we spend on food shopping, 77p goes to the supermarkets, giving them a huge influence over what we eat. Do their profits come first ?

In an experiment to discover the hidden truths about our everyday foods, Horizon has built the first ever truly ‘honest supermarket’. Drawing on the latest scientific research and leading experts from across the UK, the team have built a supermarket where the products are labelled with the real story of how they are produced and their effect on us and the environment. We invite the British public to come in and discover the truth about their favourite foods. And in our on-site lab, new scientific discoveries reveal the food facts the supermarkets aren’t telling you.

Presented by Dr Hannah Fry and dietician Priya Tew, The Honest Supermarket takes a cold hard look at what’s really going on with the food we eat. From new research that reveals you’re likely to be ingesting plastic particles along with your bottled water to the lab tests that uncover the disturbing truth about just how old your ‘fresh’ supermarket fish really is…

You’ll never look at the food on your supermarket shelves in the same way again says BBC2 Horizon, Jul 2019.

New medicine drugs : No evidence of added benefit for most

New drugs : where did we go wrong and what can we do better ?

More than half of new drugs in Germany lack proof of added benefit over existing treatments. International drug development processes and policies are responsible and must be reformed, the BMJ reports.

“Medicines regulators around the world are pursuing a strategy aimed at accelerating the development and approval of drugs. These approaches are based on the assumption that faster access to new drugs benefits patients. The rhetoric of novelty and innovation creates an assumption that new products are better than existing ones.

But although gaps in the therapeutic armamentarium undoubtedly exist, research covering drug approvals since the 1970s suggests only a limited number of new drugs provide real advances over existing drugs. Most studies put the proportion of true innovation at under 15%, with no clear improvement over time.”

continue reading on The BMJ, 10 July 2019.

Prenatal exposure to chemicals in personal care products linked to earlier puberty in girls

Association of phthalates, parabens and phenols found in personal care products with pubertal timing in girls and boys

Girls exposed to chemicals commonly found in toothpaste, makeup, soap and other personal care products before birth may hit puberty earlier, according to a new longitudinal study led by researchers at UC Berkeley (see press release).

2019 Study Abstract

STUDY QUESTION
Are in-utero or peripubertal exposures to phthalates, parabens and other phenols found in personal care products associated with timing of pubertal onset in boys and girls?

SUMMARY ANSWER
We found some associations of altered pubertal timing in girls, but little evidence in boys.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
Certain chemicals in personal care and consumer products, including low molecular weight phthalates, parabens and phenols, or their precursors, are associated with altered pubertal timing in animal studies.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION
Data were from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) longitudinal cohort study which followed 338 children in the Salinas Valley, California, from before birth to adolescence.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS
Pregnant women were enrolled in 1999–2000. Mothers were mostly Latina, living below the federal poverty threshold and without a high school diploma. We measured concentrations of three phthalate metabolites (monoethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-isobutyl phthalate), methyl and propyl paraben and four other phenols (triclosan, benzophenone-3 and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol) in urine collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at age 9. Pubertal timing was assessed among 179 girls and 159 boys every 9 months between ages 9 and 13 using clinical Tanner staging. Accelerated failure time models were used to obtain mean shifts of pubertal timing associated with concentrations of prenatal and peripubertal biomarkers.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
In girls, we observed earlier onset of pubic hair development with prenatal urinary MEP concentrations and earlier menarche with prenatal triclosan and 2,4-dichlorophenol concentrations. Regarding peripubertal biomarkers, we observed: earlier breast development, pubic hair development and menarche with methyl paraben; earlier menarche with propyl paraben; and later pubic hair development with 2,5-dichlorophenol. In boys, we observed no associations with prenatal urinary biomarker concentrations and only one association with peripubertal concentrations: earlier genital development with propyl paraben.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
These chemicals are quickly metabolized and one to two urinary measurements per developmental point may not accurately reflect usual exposure. Associations of peripubertal measurements with parabens may reflect reverse causality: children going through puberty early may be more likely to use personal care products. The study population was limited to Latino children of low socioeconomic status living in a farmworker community and may not be widely generalizable.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
This study contributes to a growing literature that suggests that exposure to certain endocrine disrupting chemicals may impact timing of puberty in children.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)
This study was funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
N/A.