Magnetic resonance imaging of Müllerian duct anomalies in children

MRI is widely considered the best modality for assessing Müllerian duct anomalies

Abstract

Müllerian duct anomalies encompass a wide variety of disorders resulting from abnormalities in the embryological development of the Müllerian ducts. In the prepubertal pediatric population, Müllerian duct anomalies are often incidental findings on studies obtained for other reasons. The onset of menses can prompt more clinical symptoms. Proper characterization of Müllerian duct anomalies is important because these anomalies can affect the development of gynecological disorders as well as fertility. Müllerian duct anomalies also carry a high association with other congenital anomalies, particularly renal abnormalities.

National Institutes of Health, NCBI PubMed PMID: 27229498, 2016 May.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely considered the best modality for assessing Müllerian duct anomalies; it provides multiplanar capability, clear anatomical detail and tissue characterization without ionizing radiation. MRI allows for careful description of Müllerian duct anomalies, often leading to classification into the most widely accepted classification system for Müllerian duct anomalies. This system, developed by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, includes seven subtypes:

  1. uterine agenesis/hypoplasia,
  2. unicornuate,
  3. didelphys,
  4. bicornuate,
  5. septate,
  6. arcuate,
  7. and diethylstilbestrol (DES) drug-related uterus.

In cases of complex anomalies that defy classification, MRI allows detailed depiction of all components of the anatomical abnormality, allowing for proper management and surgical planning.

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