In mammals, the extraembryonic tissues, which include the placenta, are crucial for embryonic development and growth.
Because the placenta is no longer needed for postnatal life, however, it has been relatively understudied as a tissue of interest in biomedical research.
Recently, increased efforts have been placed on understanding the placenta and how it may play a key role in human health and disease.
Morphologic and molecular changes in the placenta: what we can learn from environmental exposures, Fertility and Sterility, Volume 106, Issue 4, Pages Pages 930–940, September 15, 2016.
Pregnancy image: kulden.
In this review, we discuss two very different types of environmental exposures: assisted reproductive technologies and in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.
We summarize the current literature on their effects on placental development in both rodent and human, and comment on the potential use of placental biomarkers as predictors of offspring health outcomes.