The probability of a pregnancy resulting in a healthy live birth decreases as women age, particularly after age 35 years. The likelihood of a spontaneous conception decreases, whereas the risks of miscarriage and a range of late obstetric and perinatal complications increase. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has allowed many couples who would otherwise be unable to have children to have successful pregnancies, but the age-related biological barriers to establishing an ongoing pregnancy that result from increasing maternal age have been difficult to overcome, even with transfer of multiple embryos. However, although multiple-embryo transfer increases the chances of pregnancy, it also increases the likelihood of adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly those related to preterm delivery. In addition, ART is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes compared with spontaneous conception, even with singleton pregnancies, although the relative contribution of ART vs the underlying cause of infertility to these outcomes is unclear. For couples unable to achieve a successful pregnancy through ART with autologous oocytes, presumably because of idiopathic or age-related declines in ovarian reserve, the use of donor oocytes provides an alternative to replacement of multiple embryos derived from autologous oocytes (or an additional option after unsuccessful cycles with multiple embryos). Although the use of donor oocytes increases the probability of conception and live birth in older women,7 studies of donor oocytes and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes have provided inconsistent results.
Sources and FULL article: Outcomes of Donor Oocyte Cycles in Assisted Reproduction, JAMA, 17 Oct 2013
The prevalence of oocyte donation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) has increased in the United States – from +- 8,000 cycle attempts using donor eggs in 2000 to +/- 18,000 cycle attempts using donor eggs in 2010 – but little information is available regarding maternal or infant outcomes to improve counseling and clinical decision making.
Sources and FULL article: Trends and Outcomes for Donor Oocyte Cycles in the United States, 2000-2010, JAMA, 17 Oct 2013.
Sadly for many DES daughters having their own children is not possible! Many of us who have experienced miscarriages, want to have kids but are struggling or unable to…
More about DES pregnancy risks – Read DES studies on fertility and pregnancy.