2018 Study Abstract
Primodos was a hormone pregnancy test used between 1958–1978 that has been implicated with causing a range of birth defects ever since. Though Primodos is no longer used, it’s components, Norethisterone acetate and Ethinyl estradiol, are used in other medications today including treatments for endometriosis and contraceptives. However, whether Primodos caused birth defects or not remains controversial, and has been little investigated.
Here we used the developing zebrafish embryo, a human cell-line and mouse retinal explants to investigate the actions of the components of Primodos upon embryonic and tissue development.
We show that Norethisterone acetate and Ethinyl estradiol cause embryonic damage in a dose and time responsive manner. The damage occurs rapidly after drug exposure, affecting multiple organ systems. Moreover, we found that the Norethisterone acetate and Ethinyl estradiol mixture can affect nerve outgrowth and blood vessel patterning directly and accumulates in the forming embryo for at least 24 hrs.
These data demonstrate that Norethisterone acetate and Ethinyl estradiol are potentially teratogenic, depending on dose and embryonic stage of development in the zebrafish. Further work in mammalian model species are now required to build on these findings and determine if placental embryos also are affected by synthetic sex hormones and their mechanisms of action. Image credit nature.
More About Primodos
- Lower-Dose Primodos-like Contraceptives are Still being used Today : is it Safe ?
- Primodos Inquiry Needed : a Powerful Speech from Sir Edward Davey in Commons.
- Primodos EWG Report : I Did Not Endorse it, said Nick Dobrik
- MPs Challenge the EWG Report Findings in ref to Primodos and Hormone Pregnancy Tests.
- How responsible and valuable is the EWG report about Primodos side-effects ?
- Primodos Investigation : Jason Farrell Reveals.
- Primodos : The Secret Drug Scandal.
- An MP’s Views ref Government Independent Review.
- Will the Government’s Findings be Transparent Enough?
- Questioning the Safety of the Hormonal Pregnancy Test Drugs – 1978 London Programme.
- Sign the petition : Expose cover up of Hormone Pregnancy Tests on 38degrees.
- Our blog posts about the primodos pregnancy test drug.
- Watch Primodos videos on YouTube.