Prevalence of HypoSpadias in GrandSons of Women exposed to DiEthylStilbestrol during Pregnancy

Significant proportion of boys exhibiting hypospadias in DES GrandSons

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Significant proportion of boys exhibiting hypospadias in DES GrandSons.
Hhorages 2011 study.

Prenatal Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-exposed mice have raised the suspicion of a transgenerational effect in the occurrence of genital malformation in males.

This nationwide cohort study in collaboration with a French association of DES-exposed women studied 529 families and showed that a significant proportion of boys born to DES daughters exhibited hypospadias with no other molecular defects identified.

Read full study: Prevalence of hypospadias in grandsons of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy: a multigenerational national cohort study
NCBI, by Marie-Odile Soyer-Gobillard, 30 June 2011.

Related posts:

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Preterm Birth, Fetal Growth, Age at Menarche among Women exposed prenatally to DiEthylStilbestrol

DES exposed daughters more likely to have begun menstruating at younger age

DES Follow-up Study Summary

National Cancer Inst logo image
DES exposed daughters appeared to weigh slightly less and have a higher risk of being born prematurely than unexposed daughters. They also were somewhat more likely to have begun menstruating at age 10 or younger.

Research has suggested that early life characteristics, such as size at birth and age at menarche, may be associated with health conditions later in life. For example, some studies have suggested that low birth weight babies tend to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Other studies have shown that women who begin having periods at a young age have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer than those who begin menstruation later.

Although there has been a great deal of research on health of the 2nd generation (DES daughters) later in life, little attention has been paid to whether they were similar in terms of birth weight and other early life factors. Results from one of the early clinical trials of DES suggested that it might be related to lower birth weight and a higher risk of preterm birth. We conducted a systematic evaluation of DES daughters participating in the NCI DES Follow-up Study to determine whether there were any differences in birth weight, length of gestation, and the average age of first menstruation in the DES-exposed compared to unexposed daughters.

We found that there was a 2 to 3 fold increase in risk of having been born prematurely (before 37 weeks gestational age) among the DES-exposed compared to unexposed daughters. On average, DES daughters tended to weigh slightly less at birth, and there was also a 60% higher risk of being born too small, or small for gestational age (SGA), defined as less than the 10th percentile of birth weight at each gestational age. We found stronger effects for birth weight, SGA, and preterm birth among women who were participants in the original DESAD study, as compared to those who were in the Dieckmann clinical trial, suggesting that part of the effect may have been due to the higher risk pregnancies among the exposed women and not solely to DES exposure.

When we evaluated the risk of having started menstruation before age 11, we found no difference between the DES exposed and unexposed daughters. However, DES daughters did have a small increased risk (40%) of starting menarche very young-at age 10 or less-but this was based on very small numbers of participants who had very early menstruation.

In summary, DES exposed daughters appeared to weigh slightly less and have a higher risk of being born prematurely than unexposed daughters. They also were somewhat more likely to have begun menstruating at age 10 or younger. These effects may have a small impact on the risk of some diseases occurring later in life.

2011 Study Abstract:

Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen used in pregnancy during the 1950s and 1960s, provides a model for potential health effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. We evaluated prenatal exposure to DES, based on medical record review, in relation to gestational length, fetal growth, and age at menarche in 4429 exposed and 1427 unexposed daughters. DES exposure was associated with an increase in preterm birth (odds ratio (OR)=2.97; 95% CI=2.27, 3.87), and a higher risk of small for gestational age (SGA) (OR=1.61; 95% CI=1.31, 1.98). The association between DES exposure and early menarche was borderline, with stronger effects when early menarche was defined as ≤ 10 years (OR=1.41 95% CI=0.97, 2.03) than defined as ≤ 11 years (OR=1.16; 95% CI=0.97, 1.39). This study provides evidence that prenatal DES exposure was associated with fetal growth and gestational length, which may mediate associations between DES and health outcomes in later life.

Sources:

  • Preterm birth, fetal growth, and age at menarche among women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES),NCBI, PMID: 21130156, 2011 Feb;31(2):151-7. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.11.006. Epub 2010 Dec 2. Full text link.
  • NCI, DES Follow-up Study Published Papers.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Egg Donation Compensation trippled in UK but is still 1/4 compared to US Payments…

Expenses for egg donors, or profit? Depends on whether you have ovaries

Egg donor compensation in UK tripled under new HFEA guidelines
Egg donor compensation in UK tripled under new HFEA guidelines

When The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority announced in 2011 that women who donate their eggs to infertile couples, will be rewarded an extra £500 in costs, Sara Stubblefield commented: ” I think this is reasonable. If you have ever been through this process as either a donor or someone going through IVF, you know that it isn’t as simple as going to the doctor on the right day and having them remove the egg with a little syringe. You have to take shots for days in your abdomen, go to the doctor 2-3 times a week for scans and ultrasounds and then have an outpatient procedure that requires anesthesia and a very scary needle. In addition, they give you enough hormones to mature about 20 eggs at once, instead of just one, so you’re exhausted, you’re emotional, your weight goes up and you just feel crappy all around. I think that 750 pounds is a more reasonable compensation amount, considering what you must endure to donate.

The new donating system in the UK is now the same as Spain but still a way off from the US, where donors receive up to £3,000 in costs.
What are your thoughts?

Read:

Sadly for many DES daughters having their own children is not possible! Many of us who have experienced miscarriages, want to have kids but are struggling or unable to…

Adverse Health Outcomes in Women exposed in Utero to DiEthylStilbestrol

In utero exposure of women to DES is associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes

2011 Study Abstract:

Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol
High lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes in the DES Daughters

BACKGROUND:
Before 1971, several million women were exposed in utero to Diethylstilbestrol (DES) given to their mothers to prevent pregnancy complications. Several adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, but their cumulative effects are not well understood.

METHODS:
We combined data from three studies initiated in the 1970s with continued long-term follow-up of 4653 women exposed in utero to DES and 1927 unexposed controls. We assessed the risks of 12 adverse outcomes linked to DES exposure, including cumulative risks to 45 years of age for reproductive outcomes and to 55 years of age for other outcomes, and their relationships to the baseline presence or absence of vaginal epithelial changes, which are correlated with a higher dose of, and earlier exposure to, DES in utero.

RESULTS:
Cumulative risks in women exposed to DES, as compared with those not exposed, were as follows:

  • for infertility, 33.3% vs. 15.5% (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05 to 2.75)
  • spontaneous abortion, 50.3% vs. 38.6% (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.88)
  • preterm delivery, 53.3% vs. 17.8% (hazard ratio, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.74 to 5.86)
  • loss of second-trimester pregnancy, 16.4% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.56 to 5.54)
  • ectopic pregnancy, 14.6% vs. 2.9% (hazard ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 2.58 to 5.38)
  • preeclampsia, 26.4% vs. 13.7% (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.89)
  • stillbirth, 8.9% vs. 2.6% (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.54)
  • early menopause, 5.1% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.31)
  • grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 6.9% vs. 3.4% (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.59 to 3.27)
  • breast cancer at 40 years of age or older, 3.9% vs. 2.2% (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.18).

For most outcomes, the risks among exposed women were higher for those with vaginal epithelial changes than for those without such changes.

CONCLUSIONS:
In utero exposure of women to DES is associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute).

Sources:

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

After DES DiEthylStilbestrol : tracking the Harms of a Prenatal Drug Exposure

NCI Cancer Bulletin Archives 2011

After DES: Tracking the Harms of a Prenatal Drug Exposure
NCI Cancer Bulletin for October 18, 2011

Kari Christianson was 23 years old when she first heard of a drug called diethylstilbestrol, or DES.

It was the spring of 1972, and Dr. Arthur Herbst – who had recently published the study Adenocarcinoma of the Vagina — Association of Maternal Stilbestrol Therapy with Tumor Appearance in Young Women  suggesting that the drug, when used by pregnant women, might cause cancer in their offspring years later – was on television discussing concerns about the drug. For decades, doctors had prescribed DES to millions of healthy pregnant women, including Kari’s mother, based on unsubstantiated claims that it reduced the complications of pregnancy. “

Continue reading Kari’s story and Edward Winstead‘s post:
After DES: Tracking the Harms of a Prenatal Drug Exposure
NCI Cancer Bulletin for October 18, 2011.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Bisphenol A is found in many canned foods, eating canned soup boosts BPA sevel

Bisphenol A (BPA) Contaminating Our Food

BPA levels soar after lunching on canned soupPeople who ate a serving of canned soup every day for five days had BPA levels of 20.8 micrograms per liter of urine, whereas people who instead ate fresh soup had levels of 1.1 micrograms per liter, according to the study. BPA is found in many canned foods — it is a byproduct of the chemicals used to prevent corrosion. ”

Read BPA levels soar after lunching on canned soup
by Karen Rowan, Nov 22, 2011.

Study: Canned Soup Consumption and Urinary Bisphenol A: A Randomized Crossover Trial
 JAMA. 2011;306(20):2218-2220. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1721.

Increased Risks Chart for Diethylstilbestrol-exposed Women (2nd Generation)

Are you a probable DES Daughter?
See this Chart and establish how much Risk you face!

Image courtesy of the National Cancer Institute.

A study of daughters of women given diethylstilbestrol, synthetic estrogen, during pregnancy has found that exposure to the drug while in the womb is associated with many reproductive problems and an increased risk of certain cancers.

DES is definitely no a drug of the past : this chart highlights the increased health risks associated with DES exposure, compared to the risks for women who were not exposed to DES in the womb.

Read Women exposed to Diethylstilbestrol in the Womb face increased Cancer Risk from the NIH/National Cancer Institute,
October 6, 2011.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources

Distilbène et Médiator même combat?

Vidéo d’archives 2011 via Steph Draperi

Distilbène et Médiator, deux époques, deux scandales (1)

  • Vidéo du début du colloque tenu à l’Assemblée Nationale de Paris en Juin 2011 (N°1 de 6). Distilbène-Médiator: l’histoire se répète (Dr Irène Frachon). Images: Steph Draperi.
Le Distilbène DES, en savoir plus

2011 DES Study Media Coverage

Covering DiEthylStilbestrol worldwide drug disaster

2011 DES study media coverage imageOver the past few days, there has been an unprecedented flurry of media attention on DES related health issues. This come after a long-awaited DES study was published on October 06th in the New England Journal of Medicine  (MEJM) which carefully documents elevated risk for women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES in short) for a host of medical problems including cancer, infertility, ectopic pregnancies, preterm labour, …. As yet, there has been no coverage from the UK press despite a call on UK journalists to make this information available to the public.

MEDIA COVERAGE IN ENGLISH

Banned pregnancy drug impacts fetal immune system – Jerusalem Post, Oct 12, 2011

DES prescribed to women in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to prevent miscarriages, had serious, untoward effects in daughters of these women, including the development of a rare type of cancer of the uterus. There has been renewed interest in light of a recent report in the New England Journal of Medicine documenting lifelong health complications facing daughters of women given DES.

Diethylstilbestrol in utero affects immune system of the fetus – News Medical, Oct 11, 2011

Reproductive tissues are not the only targets of DES. The immune system is also known to be a target for estrogens. Dr. S. Ansar Ahmed, professor of immunology at Virginia Tech, led a National Institutes of Health study in the 1990s on how exposure to DES in utero affects the immune system later in life using a mouse model.

Suit Claims Drug Leads To Breast Cancer, Victim Speaks Out – 10TV.com, Oct 10, 2011

One woman spoke out on Monday after learning a drug she was given before she was born had life threatening consequences for her as an adult.

Risky pregnancy drug raised daughters’ cancer odds – News Channel 9 ABC, Oct 10, 2011

A drug that millions of pregnant women took decades ago to prevent miscarriage and complications has put their daughters at higher risk for breast cancer and other health problems that are showing up now, a new federal study finds.

Pregnancy drug used decades ago raises cancer risk in offspring: studySouth Asia Mail

A drug that millions of pregnant women took decades ago to prevent miscarriage and complications has put their daughters at higher risk for breast cancer and other health problems that are showing up now, a new U.S. federal study finds.

Anti-miscarriage drug victim backs campaignTheMaitlandMecury.com.au, Oct 10, 2011

A woman given the anti-miscarriage drug diethylstilbestrol supports a call for a government-backed education campaign to highlight the dangers of exposure to the medication

Podcast 133: Over 50 years later, DES’ adverse effects continue
Oct 8, 2011 – Joe Elia – Audio interview with Dr Hoover, author of the NEJM DES Study

In a follow-up to the DES drug disaster, researchers (including one of the authors of the original reports in the early 1970s) have examined reproductive health in a large cohort of women exposed to DES in utero.  Their results were published last week in the New England Journal of Medicine, and they show that the health effects apparently continue beyond the reproductive years

Study adds to furor over pregnancy drug linked to daughter’s ailmentsThe Daily.com, Karen Keller – Oct 7, 2011

The DES breast cancer lawsuit, together with a bombshell New England Journal of Medicine article published yesterday — which suggests that infertility is twice as common and that breast cancer risk is nearly doubled in “DES daughters” — has ushered in a new awareness of the drug after decades when its lingering effects went under the radar.

Women Exposed to Synthetic Estrogen Diethylstilbestrol (DES) in the Womb Face Increased Cancer Risk, Study Finds
Science Daily – Oct 6, 2011 Hayden Donnell

A large study of the daughters of women who had been given DES, the first synthetic form of estrogen, during pregnancy has found that exposure to the drug while in the womb (in utero) is associated with many reproductive problems and an increased risk of certain cancers and pre-cancerous conditions.

Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in the womb face increased cancer risk – EurekAlert (press release) – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Beginning in 1940, diethylstilbestrol, known as DES, was used clinically to prevent certain complications of pregnancy. In the 1950s, clinical studies showed DES was ineffective for this purpose. In the late 1960s, an unusual occurrence of a rare

Women Exposed To Hormone In Utero Face Lifelong Health Problems – NPR (blog) – Richard Knox – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Back in the 1940s, ’50s and ’60s, doctors prescribed a hormone called diethylstilbestrol, or DES, to millions of pregnant women in the unfounded belief it could prevent miscarriages. Smack in the middle of this period, the deformed thalidomide babies

Synthetic estrogen use leads to health problems
New Zealand Herald

Diethylstilbestrol was prescribed in the mistaken belief it could reduce pregnancy complications, but the daughters of the women who took it are still living with its effects

Health Risks for Women Exposed to DES in Utero
Doctors Lounge – HealthDay News – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol have a higher lifetime risk for several adverse health outcomes, according to a study published in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

DES Exposure Linked to Lifetime Risk of Adverse Outcomes
Family Practice News Digital Network – Mary Ann Moon – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

In-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol was associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes in a follow-up study of patients now in their 40s, 50s, and 60s, according to a report in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England

Effects of DES Exposure Follow Women for Decades
MedPage Today – Charles Bankhead – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Explain that the teratogenic effects of diethylstilbestrol have continued to exact a heavy toll throughout the lifetime of women who were exposed to the drug in utero. Point out that DES-exposed women

Pregnancy Drug is Causing Grown Daughters to Face Risk of Cancer, Infertility – AboutLawsuits.com

The daughters of women given diethylstilbestrol (DES), a drug commonly used decades ago to prevent miscarriages and birth defects, are showing high rates of breast cancer and infertility problems, according to recent research.

DES daughters (and bummmer, I’m one) have some raised health risks – Los Angeles Times – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Millions of women alive today were exposed to a chemical called DES – diethylstilbestrol – in their mother’s uterus. The chemical, an early synthetic estrogen, was administered to some pregnant women before 1971 to help reduce risk of miscarriages and

Prenatal exposure to synthetic estrogen ups cancer risk in daughters – TruthDive

Washington, Sept 06 (ANI): Daughters of women who took a synthetic estrogen called diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant decades ago are now facing a greater chance of being infertile and developing cancer, according to a large study by the National

Pregnancy drug found to cause fertility woes, cancers
Vancouver Sun

The study in Thursday’s New England Journal of Medicine examines the daughters of females exposed in the womb to diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was prescribed in the mistaken belief it could reduce certain complications of pregnancy.

Anti-miscarriage drug DES causes multi-generational health problems – Macleans.ca

by macleans.ca on Thursday, October 6, 2011 12:56pm – 0 Comments DES (or diethylstilbestrol), an anti-miscarriage drug widely used between 1940 and 1970, has been linked to health problems—including breast cancer, infertility, difficult pregnancies and

“DES” increases women infertility and cancers
Empowered News

DES or diethylstilbestrol have been prescribed to pregnant women for the belief that it will reduce complications during pregnancy. The National Cancer Institute researchers and scientists have been following about 6500 women including those exposed to

Health Woes Still Strike Women Exposed to Banned Pregnancy Drug – U.S. News & World Report – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Women whose mothers were given the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy are at increased risk for fertility problems and cancer as they age, new research shows. This study from the US National Cancer

DES cancer link sparks campaign call
Sydney Morning Herald – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

A study published by the New England Journal of Medicine on Thursday found daughters of women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant face a greater chance of being infertile and developing a rare vaginal cancer.

DES linked to cancer, infertility
Sydney Morning Herald – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

A study appearing in Thursday’s New England Journal of Medicine examines women exposed in the womb to diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was prescribed in the mistaken belief it could reduce certain complications of pregnancy. Researchers at the National

In Utero DES Exposure Hurt Daughters’ Health
CalorieLab Calorie Counter News – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

A comprehensive study looking at the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES) that was widely used by pregnant women in Europe and the United States to prevent problems in pregnancy such as miscarriage and premature birth from the 1940s until the 1960s suggests

Fake Hormone For Pregnant Women Causes Real Cancer In Their Daughters – Jezebel

The Associated Press reports that the drug, an artificial form of estrogen called DES (diethylstilbestrol), was often prescribed to pregnant women in pill or cream form between 1940 and 1960. When it was discovered that the teenage daughters of women

DES Daughters: Banned Pregnancy Drug Linked to Infertility, Prematurity and Cancer – TIME – Bonnie Rochman

That drug was DES, or diethylstilbestrol, which was widely prescribed in the US beginning in 1940 to help stave off miscarriage — until 1971, when the US Food and Drug Administration decided that the drug doesn’t work and that it causes cancer.

Risky pregnancy drug raised daughters’ cancer odds
Coshocton Tribune

Diethylstilbestrol, or DES, widely was used in the United States, Europe and elsewhere from the 1940s through the 1960s to prevent miscarriage, premature birth, bleeding and other problems. Many companies made it as pills and creams.

Moms who took miscarriage drug DES have daughters with higher risk for breast … – New York Daily News

DES, or diethylstilbestrol, was widely used in the United States, Europe and elsewhere from the 1940s through the 1960s to prevent miscarriage, premature birth, bleeding and other problems. Many companies made and sold it as pills, creams and other

Prenatal exposure to synthetic estrogen ups cancer risk in daughters – BioScholar News

Daughters of women who took a synthetic estrogen called diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant decades ago are now facing a greater chance of being infertile and developing cancer, according to a large study by the National Cancer Institute in the

Pregnancy drug raised daughters’cancer odds
Post-Tribune – Marilynn Marchione – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

Risks for other health problems vary. DES, or diethylstilbestrol, was widely used in the United States, Europe and elsewhere from the 1940s through the 1960s to prevent miscarriage, premature birth, bleeding and other problems.

Pregnancy drug raised daughters’ cancer odds
Salt Lake Tribune – Marilynn Marchione – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

AP A drug that millions of pregnant women took decades ago to prevent miscarriage and complications has put their daughters at higher risk for breast cancer and other health problems that are showing up now, a new federal study

Pregnancy Drug proving a risk for children – WREG

Millions of women in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s who wanted to make sure they had safe pregnancies, took a drug called DES. The women likely didn`t know it then, but that drug came with side effects that are surfacing 50 plus years later in their children.

Today’s Top Medical Stories for October 6, 2011
OzarksFirst.com – ‎Oct 6, 2011‎

Millions of women exposed to the first synthetic form of estrogen are at risk of cancer . A National Institutes of Health study followed daughters of pregnant women given synthetic estrogen called DES from the 1940’s to the 1970s.

Drugs women took years ago may affect daughters
WNDU-TV

A drug millions of pregnant women took decades ago may increase health risks among their daughters. An estimated four million Americans were exposed to DES, a synthetic estrogen prescribed to prevent miscarriages and pregnancy complications,

Risky pregnancy drug raised daughters’ cancer odds
KTUU – ‎Oct 5, 2011‎

A new federal study finds that a drug that millions of pregnant women took decades ago to prevent miscarriage and complications has put their daughters at higher risk for breast cancer. Cancer and other health problems are showing

Drug To Prevent Miscarriage Increases Odds for Breast Cancer
Heal Blog (blog) – ‎Oct 5, 2011

by Art Writ, October 6th, 2011 Decades ago, women have taken a certain drug that lessens the risk of miscarriage. However, just recently, researchers have found out that the complications and side effects of this drug has placed their daughters at

MEDIA COVERAGE IN FRENCH

L’exposition fœtale au Distilbène accroît les risques de certains cancers – Le Monde – ‎6 oct. 2011‎

Les femmes exposées dans le ventre de leur mère au Distilbène, premier œstrogène de synthèse utilisé dès 1940, souffrent de nombreux problèmes de reproduction et sont soumises à un net accroissement du risque de certains cancers, selon une vaste étude

Distilbène : de nouveaux risques de cancers identifiés
Magic Maman – ‎6 oct. 2011‎

Une étude menée par les chercheurs de l’Institut National du Cancer américain publiée aujourd’hui dans le New England Journal of Medecine révèle de nouveaux effets négatifs liés à l’exposition intra-utérine au distilbène. En cause : des risques accrus

Les femmes exposées au Distilbène au stade foetal ont plus de problèmes de santé – Maxisciences – ‎6 oct. 2011‎

Une étude menée par des chercheurs de l’Institut national américain du cancer (NCI) montre que des femmes exposées au stade fœtal au Distilbène, un œstrogène de synthèse, souffrent aujourd’hui de problèmes de reproduction et sont davantage sujettes à

Filles du Distilbène : un risque accru de cancers
Terrafemina – ‎6 oct. 2011‎

Les résultats d’une vaste étude publiée aujourd’hui dans le New England of Medicine révèlent que les femmes exposées au Distilbène dans le ventre de leur mère sont soumises à un risque accru de cancer. Entre 1948 et 1976, 200 000 femmes ont été

Reproductive tissues are not the only targets of DES. The immune system is also known to be a target for estrogens. Dr. S. Ansar Ahmed, professor of immunology at Virginia Tech, led a National Institutes of Health study in the 1990s on how exposure to DES in utero affects the immune system later in life using a mouse model.

More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources