Replicating viral vector platform exploits alarmin signals for potent CD8+ T cell-mediated tumour immunotherapy
Swiss scientists have created artificial viruses that can be used to target cancer. These designer viruses alert the immune system and cause it to send killer cells to help fight the tumor. The results provide a basis for innovative cancer treatments.
2017 Study Abstract
Viral infections lead to alarmin release and elicit potent cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte (CTLeff) responses. Conversely, the induction of protective tumour-specific CTLeff and their recruitment into the tumour remain challenging tasks. Here we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be engineered to serve as a replication competent, stably-attenuated immunotherapy vector (artLCMV). artLCMV delivers tumour-associated antigens to dendritic cells for efficient CTL priming. Unlike replication-deficient vectors, artLCMV targets also lymphoid tissue stroma cells expressing the alarmin interleukin-33. By triggering interleukin-33 signals, artLCMV elicits CTLeff responses of higher magnitude and functionality than those induced by replication-deficient vectors. Superior anti-tumour efficacy of artLCMV immunotherapy depends on interleukin-33 signalling, and a massive CTLeff influx triggers an inflammatory conversion of the tumour microenvironment. Our observations suggest that replicating viral delivery systems can release alarmins for improved anti-tumour efficacy. These mechanistic insights may outweigh safety concerns around replicating viral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.
Designer Viruses Stimulate the Immune System to Fight Cancer, University of Basel, 26 May 2017.
Replicating viral vector platform exploits alarmin signals for potent CD8+ T cell-mediated tumour immunotherapy, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms15327, 26 May 2017.
Image : Stable transgene expression and attenuation of artLCMV in vivo, nature, Figure 2, 26 May 2017.
A safe, healthy and protective environment is key to ensuring all children grow and develop normally and healthily. In 2015, reducing environmental risks could have prevented more than a quarter of the 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years.
Children are particularly vulnerable to air pollution, hazardous chemicals, climate change, and inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene.
Official Twitter account of the World Health Organization, the United Nations’ health agency. WHO PHE infographics.
10 facts on children’s environmental health, WHO, March 2017.
Inheriting a sustainable world: Atlas on children’s health and the environment, WHO pdf (4Mb), March 2017.
The cost of a polluted environment: 1.7 million child deaths a year, WHO News release, 6 MARCH 2017.
The Pesticide Action Week is an annual and international event, open to everyone, with the aim to promote alternatives to pesticides. The campaign takes place during the first ten days of every spring (20th-30th of march) when usually the spreading of pesticides resumes.
The public is invited to get better informed about the sanitary and environmental challenges caused by pesticides and learn more about possible alternatives to pesticides by taking part in one of the hundreds of organised activities: conferences, panel discussions, film showings, workshops, open days at organic farms, information stands, exhibitions, shows…
The goals of this event are:
Raising awareness on the health and environment risks of synthetic pesticides
Highlighting and promoting alternative solutions
Building a global grassroots movement for a pesticide-free world
Envoyé Spécial 16 mars 2017 : Enquête sur le Scandale de la Dépakine
Cet anti-épileptique est accusé d’avoir provoqué de graves malformations sur les enfants exposés in utero. Retour sur un scandale sanitaire et sur l’inertie des autorités de santé.
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Envoyé Spécial, émission du 16/03/2017 – Dépakine, le silence des médecins – Enquête sur le scandale de la Dépakine, un anti-épileptique pointé du doigt pour ses effets secondaires : chez la femme enceinte, il peut entraîner des malformations et des troubles neurologiques chez le nouveau-né.