60 MiNueTs Toxic

UCSF Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, 2017

Video published on 18 Apr 2019 by the UCSF Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment.

The University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment (PRHE)’s mission is to create a healthier environment for human reproduction and development through advancing scientific inquiry, clinical care and health policies that prevent exposures to harmful chemicals in our environment.

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Les liens entre les industries agroalimentaire et pharmaceutique

Interview de Vandana Shiva, Brut, Février 2019

Selon Vandana Shiva, des multinationales s’enrichissent en vendant des médicaments pour soigner des maladies qu’elles ont elles-mêmes provoquées.

L’écologiste Vandana Shiva dénonce le “cartel du poison”, Brut, Février 2019.

Childhood obesity before 12 years of age appears to increase the risk of female infertility in later life

Association of childhood obesity with female infertility in adulthood: a 25-year follow-up study

2018 Study Abstract

Objective
To evaluate whether childhood obesity is associated with infertility in women’s reproductive-aged life.

Design
Prospective longitudinal study.

Setting
Not applicable.

Intervention(s)
None.

Patient(s)
A total of 1,544 girls, aged 7–15 years in 1985, and who completed questionnaires at follow-up in 2004-2006 and/or 2009-2011.

Main Outcome Measure(s)
Infertility was defined as having difficulty conceiving (had tried for ≥12 months to become pregnant without succeeding) or having seen a doctor because of trouble becoming pregnant.

Result(s)
At ages from 7–11 years, girls at both the lower and upper end of the body mass index (BMI) z score had increased risk of infertility. Compared with normal weight girls, those with obesity at ages 7–11 years were more likely in adulthood to report infertility (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48–5.84), difficulty conceiving (aRR = 3.89, 95% CI 1.95–7.77), or having seen a doctor because of trouble becoming pregnant (aRR = 3.65, 95% CI 1.90–7.02) after adjusting for childhood age, follow-up length, highest parental education, and marital status.

Conclusion(s)
Childhood obesity before 12 years of age appears to increase the risk of female infertility in later life.

UK Government considering banning energy drink sales to children

Many major British retailers already refuse to sell energy drinks to those under 18

In England, 16-year-olds can down a pint in a pub, if having a meal in adult company. But under a new government proposal, it would be illegal for them to buy an energy drink like Red Bull at the corner store, The NY Times reports. This gov.uk consultation closes at 11:59pm on 21 November 2018.

Public asked for views on banning energy drink sales to children

The consultation is part of the government’s plan to reduce childhood obesity and other health problems in children.

The government is seeking views from the public on ending the sale of energy drinks to children and young people in England, the Prime Minister has announced.

The consultation proposes that a ban would apply to drinks that contain more than 150mg of caffeine per litre and prevent all retailers from selling the drinks to children.

It follows the publication of the latest chapter of the government’s childhood obesity plan in June 2018, which outlines a series of measures as well as a commitment to halve childhood obesity by 2030.

Questions in the consultation include:

  • whether the restrictions should apply to children under 16 or under 18
  • whether the law should be changed to prevent children from buying them in any situation

Energy drinks are already banned for sale to children by many major retailers, but children can still buy them from vending machines and many independent convenience stores, for example.

More than two-thirds of 10- to 17-year-olds and a quarter of 6- to 9-year-olds consume energy drinks. A 250ml can of energy drink can contains around 80mg of caffeine – the equivalent of nearly 3 cans of cola. On average, non-diet energy drinks also contain 60% more calories and 65% more sugar than other, regular soft drinks.

Excessive consumption has been linked to a number of health issues in children, including:

  • headaches
  • sleep problems
  • stomach aches
  • hyperactivity

Prime Minister Theresa May said:

“Childhood obesity is one of the greatest health challenges this country faces, and that’s why we are taking significant action to reduce the amounts of sugar consumed by young people and to help families make healthier choices.

Our plans to tackle obesity are already world leading, but we recognise much more needs to be done and as part of our long-term plan for the NHS, we are putting a renewed focus on the prevention of ill-health.

With thousands of young people regularly consuming energy drinks, often because they are sold at cheaper prices than soft drinks, we will consult on banning the sale of energy drinks to children.

It is vital that we do all we can to make sure children have the best start in life and I encourage everyone to put forward their views.”

Public Health Minister Steve Brine said:

“We all have a responsibility to protect children from products that are damaging to their health and education, and we know that drinks packed to the brim with caffeine, and often sugar, are becoming a common fixture of their diet.

Our teenagers already consume 50% more of these drinks than European counterparts, and teachers have made worrying links between energy drinks and poor behaviour in the classroom.

We are asking the public for their views on the matter, to ensure energy drinks are not being excessively consumed by children.”

Behavioral aspects involved in obesogenic actions of EDCs

Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and the control of feeding behavior – An overview

2018 Study Highlights

  • Perinatal exposure to EDC can disrupt energy homeostasis leading to obesity and diabetes.
  • Most perinatal studies only report crude food or energy intake, if at all.
  • Perinatal studies should analyze meal patterns and response to peripheral peptide hormones.
  • These studies should also examine hypothalamic-hindbrain neurocircuitry.

Abstract

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that can interact with steroid and nuclear receptors or alter hormone production. Many studies have reported that perinatal exposure to EDC including bisphenol A, PCB, dioxins, and DDT disrupt energy balance, body weight, adiposity, or glucose homeostasis in rodent offspring. However, little information exists on the effects of perinatal EDC exposure on the control of feeding behaviors and meal pattern (size, frequency, duration), which may contribute to their obesogenic properties. Feeding behaviors are controlled centrally through communication between the hindbrain and hypothalamus with inputs from the emotion and reward centers of the brain and modulated by peripheral hormones like ghrelin and leptin. Discrete hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, lateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, and ventromedial nucleus) project numerous reciprocal neural connections between each other and to other brain regions including the hindbrain (nucleus tractus solitarius and parabrachial nucleus).

Most studies on the effects of perinatal EDC exposure examine simple crude food intake over the course of the experiment or for a short period in adult models. In addition, these studies do not examine EDC’s impacts on the feeding neurocircuitry of the hypothalamus-hindbrain, the response to peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, etc.) after refeeding, or other feeding behavior paradigms. The purpose of this review is to discuss those few studies that report crude food or energy intake after perinatal EDC exposure and to explore the need for deeper investigations in the hypothalamic-hindbrain neurocircuitry and discrete feeding behaviors..

60 MiNueTs : Toxic Bodies

UCSF Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment, 2017

The University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment (PRHE)’s mission is to create a healthier environment for human reproduction and development through advancing scientific inquiry, clinical care and health policies that prevent exposures to harmful chemicals in our environment.

PRHE is housed within the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, in the UCSF School of Medicine, one of the nation’s most prestigious medical schools. The Department is renowned for promoting cutting-edge reproductive science research, extending the frontiers of multidisciplinary women’s health care and professional education, advocating for women’s health at local, state and national levels, and engaging community involvement.

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Mothers need to limit their consumption of added sugars when breastfeeding

From mother to baby: ‘Secondhand sugars’ can pass through breast milk

A new study by researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of USC indicates that a “secondhand sugar” – derived from a mom’s diet – is passed from mother to infant through breast milk.

Even a small amount of fructose – a sweetener linked to health issues ranging from obesity to diabetes – in breast milk is associated with increases in a baby’s body weight.

2017 Study Abstract

Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu9020146, 16 February 2017.

From mother to baby: ‘Secondhand sugars’ can pass through breast milk, news.usc.edu, MARCH 2, 2017.

Cake credit waferboard.

Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy.

Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively).

Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03).

Conclusion

Overall, this study suggests a novel mechanism by which infants may be inadvertently exposed to fructose through breast milk, before sugar sweetened beverages and other fructose-containing foods are introduced to the infant diet.

This work also opens the door for interventions aimed towards decreased consumption of added sugars while lactating.

Future work should be performed with larger samples with longer follow-up (>6 months) in order to establish whether the relationships observed between fructose exposure and infant growth meaningfully impact the development of obesity phenotypes in later childhood and to investigative the mechanism of such an effect at very low levels of fructose.

In conclusion, we provide preliminary evidence that fructose is present in breast milk and may be transmitted to the infant, impacting growth and body composition by 6 months of age.

High body mass index during pregnancy not associated with a long term risk of obesity in offspring

High Pregnancy BMI Not Linked to Offspring BMI

This new study looked at whether increased body mass index (BMI) in mothers while pregnant was causally associated with excess weight in offspring during childhood and adolescence. It also examined whether this effect was over and above the expected contribution of genes to being overweight.

2017 Study Abstract

Background

It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood.

Methods and Findings

Using Genetic Variation to Explore the Causal Effect of Maternal Pregnancy Adiposity on Future Offspring Adiposity: A Mendelian Randomisation Study, PLOS one, dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002221, January 24, 2017.

Image credit remon rijper.

We used maternal genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test the causal effect of maternal BMI in pregnancy on offspring fatness (BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] determined fat mass index [FMI]) in a MR approach. This was investigated, with repeat measurements, from ages 7 to 18 in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2,521 to 3,720 for different ages). We then sought to replicate findings with results for BMI at age 6 in Generation R (n = 2,337 for replication sample; n = 6,057 for total pooled sample).

In confounder-adjusted multivariable regression in ALSPAC, a 1 standard deviation (SD, equivalent of 3.7 kg/m2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD (95% CI 0.21–0.29) increase in offspring BMI at age 7, with similar results at later ages and when FMI was used as the outcome.

A weighted genetic risk score was generated from 32 genetic variants robustly associated with BMI (minimum F-statistic = 45 in ALSPAC). The MR results using this genetic risk score as an IV in ALSPAC were close to the null at all ages (e.g., 0.04 SD (95% CI -0.21–0.30) at age 7 and 0.03 SD (95% CI -0.26–0.32) at age 18 per SD increase in maternal BMI), which was similar when a 97 variant generic risk score was used in ALSPAC.

When findings from age 7 in ALSPAC were meta-analysed with those from age 6 in Generation R, the pooled confounder-adjusted multivariable regression association was 0.22 SD (95% CI 0.19–0.25) per SD increase in maternal BMI and the pooled MR effect (pooling the 97 variant score results from ALSPAC with the 32 variant score results from Generation R) was 0.05 SD (95%CI -0.11–0.21) per SD increase in maternal BMI (p-value for difference between the two results = 0.05). A number of sensitivity analyses exploring violation of the MR results supported our main findings. However, power was limited for some of the sensitivity tests and further studies with relevant data on maternal, offspring, and paternal genotype are required to obtain more precise (and unbiased) causal estimates.

Conclusions

Our findings provide little evidence to support a strong causal intrauterine effect of incrementally greater maternal BMI resulting in greater offspring adiposity.

Health Effects from Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Cost The U.S.

Yearly Exposure to Chemicals Dangerous to Hormone Function Burdens Americans with Hundreds of Billions in Disease Costs

Reducing chemical exposure could save Americans hundreds of billions of dollars in healthcare costs.

How the food lobby undermines existing laws in the EU

Much-needed measures are vital for tackling Europe’s looming obesity crisis

The food and drink lobby is winning the fight over EU sugar regulation. As Corporate Europe Observatory’s new reportA spoonful of sugar‘ illustrates, existing laws are being undermined and much-needed measures fought off that are vital for tackling Europe’s looming health crisis.

An increasing number of people in Europe are struggling with obesity, heart disease and diabetes linked to excessive sugar consumption. This public health crisis has not stopped trade associations that represent the biggest players in the food and drink industry from resisting regulation at all cost: snacks, drinks, and processed foods that are high in sugar have the highest profit margins.

Food lobby rigs EU sugar laws while obesity and diabetes spiral out of control, corporateeurope, July 28th 2016.

In total, the key trade associations, companies and lobby groups behind sugary food and drinks spend an estimated €21.3 million annually to lobby the European nion.

A spoonful of sugar‘ highlights how, despite rhetoric about addressing the health crisis, industry lobbyists are derailing effective sugar regulation in the European Union.

Their strategies include:
  • Pushing free trade agreements and deregulation drives that undermine existing laws;
  • Exercising undue influence over EU regulatory bodies;
  • Capturing scientific expertise;
  • Championing weak voluntary schemes;
  • Outmaneuvering consumer groups by spending billions on aggressive lobbying.

Health policies like upper limits for sugars in processed foods, sugar taxes, and labels that clearly show added sugars are long overdue. We need lobby transparency and a clear division between the regulators and the regulated. Rules and guidelines that help people make informed and healthier nutrition choices must no longer fall prey to the disproportionate influence of the food and drink industry.

Katharine Ainger, freelance journalist and co-author of Corporate Europe Observatory’s new report, said:

“So many independent scientific studies show a clear link between excessive sugar consumption and serious health risks. But the fact that there is still no consensus on the dangers of sugar among EU regulators proves just how powerful the food and drink lobby is.
Sound scientific advice is being sidelined by the billions of euros backing the sugar lobby. In its dishonesty and its disregard for people’s health, the food and drink industry rivals the tactics we’ve seen from the tobacco lobby for decades.”