Gonadal feminization and feminization of the quail following DES exposure
1st Abstract – 1979
Early treatment of Quail eggs by DES promotes a transient feminization of the gonads in genetic males and a strong stimulation of the Müllerian ducts. The left ovotestis results from the juxtaposition of a testicular medulla and an induced female-type cortex, which develops follicles and a characteristic 17 beta-HSD activity. The right testis is reduced but keeps a consistent structure. The medulla of the treated gonads shows, in both sexes, an inhibition of delta 5-3 beta HSD activity during embryonic development. After hatching, this specific enzyme then develops in the steroidogenic cells. These results are compared with others obtained with estradiol and also in chick. The discussion deals also with the effects of these estrogens on the endogenous abilities and specific responses of the gonads in relation to sex differentiation factors.
2nd Abstract – 1995
The effect of diethylstilboestrol on gonad development in quail embryos has been quantitatively analysed. Quail embryos at 4 days of incubation were treated with diethylstilboestrol (DES), using the egg dipping method. At 10 days of incubation, embryos were removed and killed by decapitation. Tissues were prepared for chromosome analysis, and the parts of the abdomen containing the gonads were prepared for serial sectioning and quantitative assessment. Left gonads of DES-treated male embryos resembled ovaries histologically, while their right gonads were markedly reduced in size. Right gonads of DES-treated female embryos were also further reduced by treatment with DES. There was no statistically significant effect by DES treatment on the size of left gonads, although the ratio of left compared with right gonadal volumes was highly significant. Since, in birds, the left embryonic gonad has ambisexual potential, while the potential of the right gonad is exclusively masculine, these results exemplify the adverse effect exerted by oestrogen on male sexual development in vertebrates.
Feminization of the quail by early diethylstilbestrol treatment: histoenzymological investigations on steroid dehydrogenases in the gonads, NCBI, PMID: 294849, 1979;68(2):85-98.
A quantitative investigation of gonadal feminization by diethylstilboestrol of genetically male embryos of the quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, NCBI, PMID: 7616493, 1995 Mar;103(2):223-6.
Full text: Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, doi: 10.1530/jrf.0.1030223
Did something just happen last week or was it at a young age? Was it a curse from God or a side effect from modern medicine?
” So, how could this all happen? How could a seemingly healthy boy grow up with the feelings of a little girl? Did something just happen last week or was it at a young age? Was it from abuse and cruelty or from circumstances that just happened? Was it a curse from God or a side effect from modern medicine? Can This be prevented from happening to some other boy? Hopefully this Biography can answer some of your questions and maybe some of mine as well.
Before my mother had her first child she suffered three miscarriages. Modern medicine at that time was just starting to study hormonal effects in childbirth. It was discovered that my mother’s hormone levels were deficient in Estrogen after conception. Scientists introduced a new drug called DES which was designed to improve these levels. So when my mother became pregnant with me she was immediately placed on DES… ”
Few day later, Brynn Tannehill, Director of Advocacy, SPART*A, published a paper with no less than 15 studies showing a biological origin of gender dysphoria… One of them is a mention about DES:
“In this study, more than 150 individuals with confirmed or suspected prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure reported moderate to severe feelings of gender dysphoria across the lifespan.”
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLSTILBESTROL (DES) IN MALES AND GENDER-RELATED DISORDERS: RESULTS FROM A 5-YEAR STUDY
For many years, researchers and public health specialists have been assessing the human health impact of prenatal exposure to the estrogenic anti-miscarriage drug, diethylstilbestrol (commonly known as DES or “stilbestrol”). The scope of adverse effects in females exposed to DES (often called “DES daughters“) has been more substantially documented than the effects in males (“DES sons“). This paper contributes three areas of important research on DES exposure in males:
an overview of published literature discussing the confirmed and suspected adverse effects of prenatal exposure in DES sons;
preliminary results from a 5-year online study of DES sons involving 500 individuals with confirmed (60% of sample) and suspected prenatal DES exposure;
documentation of the presence of gender identity disorders and male-to-female transsexualism reported by more than 100 participants in the study.
The physical and psychological impact of the problems associated with DES exposure are well documented
1993 Study Abstract
Accumulating evidence in experimental animals over the past three decades suggests that mammalian brain development and differentiation of the central nervous system are influenced by perinatal exposure to sex hormones. Hence, changes in human behavioral patterns may be associated with prenatal exposure to estrogenic substances such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). This paper reviews relevant studies from a series of laboratories and finds that no clear-cut differences can be demonstrated to date between unexposed and DES-exposed women in gender-related behavior, although the physical and psychological impact of the problems associated with exposure to DES are well documented. If both prenatal and postnatal influences such as social, economic, and environmental factors are taken into consideration, individual variation is more apparent than differences in gender-related behavior between unexposed and DES-exposed women. In summary, gender-related behavior is determined by a complex array of interacting factors, and prenatal influences are only one of many developmental events. More studies are needed using larger populations with carefully controlled selection criteria to suggest a direct role of prenatal DES exposure on subsequent gender-related behavior.